The Leonard N. Stern School of Business (commonly known as The Stern School or Stern), is New York University's business school. Established as the School of Commerce, Accounts and Finance in 1900, Stern is one of the oldest and most prestigious business schools in the world. It is also a founding member of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. In 1988, it was named in honor of Leonard N. Stern, an alumnus and benefactor of the school.

The school is located on NYU's Greenwich Village campus next to the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences.


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The Stern School was founded by Charles Waldo Haskins in 1900 as the Undergraduate School of Commerce, Accounts and Finance on the University's Washington Square campus. In 1913, Jeanette Hamill, J.D., M.A., joined the School's Economics department, becoming its first female faculty member. In 1936, women comprised 15 percent of the total enrollment. The graduate business program was launched in New York's downtown business district in 1916. The School's "Wall Street Division" served both full-time and currently employed students.

By 1945, the school's enrollment was well over 10,000 with graduates hailing from 36 countries and 48 states. In the 1960s, International business courses were introduced and soon became an important focus of the School's curriculum. The New York University, C.J. Devine Institute of Finance (1959–1966), Graduate School of Business published many key Finance and Investment bulletins related to International finance. The NYU C.J. Devine Institute of Finance was named after benefactor Christopher J. Devine from 1959 to 1966. Devine was founder of C.J. Devine & Co. the largest dealer in U.S. Government Securities from 1933, until his death in May 1963.

The School of Commerce, Accounts and Finance was renamed the College of Business and Public Administration in 1972. In the same year, Tisch Hall, designed by Philip Johnson and Richard Foster (see also: Bobst Library and Meyer Building) opened at 40 West Fourth Street to house the undergraduate college. In 1988, a $30 million gift from the School's alumnus Leonard N. Stern (B.S. 1957; MBA, 1959) allowed School to consolidate its graduate and undergraduate facilities at NYU's Washington Square campus. The School was renamed Leonard N. Stern School of Business. In 1992 Stern's new $68 million state-of-the-art facility, today known as Kaufman Management Center, was inaugurated.

In 1998, a $10 million gift from Henry Kaufman (PhD 1958) supported a major expansion and upgrading of Stern's facilities. The new and renovated space is used almost exclusively to improve the quality of student life. Prominent investment banker and Home Depot investor Kenneth Langone (MBA 1960) donated $10 million to Stern in 1999. The Langone MBA for Working Professionals was renamed in his honor. Celebrating its 100th birthday in the year 2000, Stern launched a $100 million Centennial Campaign, the School's most ambitious fundraising effort to date. The campaign doubled Stern's endowment, the number of named professorships, and the level of student financial aid.

Peter Blair Henry became dean of the school in January 2010.

In 2010, the 84,500-square-foot (7,850 m2) renovation of the three Stern School of Business buildings, known as the Stern Concourse Project, was completed. This project was fully funded by donors, alumni and corporate partners.

NYU Stern Westchester offers its Langone MBA for Working Professionals in Purchase, New York, at SUNY Purchase.


As of 2009, 2,305 students are enrolled in Stern's undergraduate program and 2,969 are enrolled in its Master of Business Administration (MBA) program. There are 202 full-time faculty and 74 adjunct professors. Stern offers a broad spectrum of academic programs at the graduate and undergraduate levels. The school is located on West 4th Street, occupying Shimkin and Tisch Halls and the Kaufman Management Center, on NYU's Washington Square campus. Stern offers academic majors in Marketing, Finance, Information Systems, Actuarial Science, Economic Policy, Economic Theory, Entertainment Media & Technology, Accounting (CPA and General) and others, as well as co-majors in International Business, Financial Systems, and a certificate program in Entertainment, Media and Technology. Stern also offers an Executive MBA program for experienced professionals and executives, a 22-month-long degree program which includes two global study tours as a part of the curriculum. The average age of executive MBA degree candidates is 38, and 45% of the students have at least one advanced degree in other areas.

Students who attend the Stern School of Business are often called "Sternies," a nickname used by students in the NYU community. In the spring break of the undergraduate junior year, all "Sternies" are invited to travel abroad as part of a core curriculum class, "International Study Program," which engages students to visit a non-U.S. company. Cultural learning experience is an integral part of the program as well. Recent destinations include: Singapore, Sweden, Hungary, Argentina, Chile, Japan, South Korea, Germany, Mexico, and Hong Kong.

Stern also offers its own study abroad program IBEX (International Business Exchange Program). This program lasts one semester at many of the top business schools around the world. Stern currently has multiple partner schools for this program in: Singapore, Australia, China, Denmark, England, France, Hong Kong SAR, Italy, South Korea, Mexico, The Netherlands, Spain and Thailand.


Both the undergraduate and graduate programs are consistently ranked among the top schools in the U.S. and worldwide by leading business and education publications.

As of March 2011, Stern's undergraduate program is ranked:

  • #5 by U.S. News and World Report
  • #12 by BusinessWeek

Stern Undergraduate Program

The Stern Undergraduate Program is extremely selective: it boasts Finance and International Business programs that are both ranked #2 nationally on U.S. News.

University of Texas at Dallas ranks NYU Stern as one of the top ten best business schools in the world.

Business and Political Economy (BPE) Undergraduate Degree

In 2009, Stern launched its selective Business and Political Economy program (BPE). The program has a ~6% matriculation rate. More than 850 students applied to the BPE program for the Class of 2015, and approximately 100 were accepted to yield an ultimate class size of ~50 students. Yield rates are >75%, although Stern does not yet publish official statistics for the BPE program. BPE students study the same business core curriculum as traditional Stern undergrads, however, they have additional specialized tracks including cores in Liberal Arts, Politics, Social Impact and Economics.

Students attend their first year at Stern in New York City, their second year at NYU London, and first semester junior year at one of Asia's rapidly developing economies (currently Shanghai) or in Washington, D.C. BPE students return to Stern NYU for the remaining year and a half. The Program's Director describes the BPE degree as "Stern and then some". Students graduate with a B.S. in Business & Political Economy with the inaugural class of 2013.

Stern Graduate Program

Stern's MBA program is ranked:

  • #10 in the U.S. by U.S. News and World Report
  • #3 in business research contribution among 100 business schools worldwide by the School of Management at the University of Texas at Dallas
  • #12 in the U.S. and 19th worldwide by Financial Times
  • #18 in the U.S. and 22nd worldwide by the Aspen Institute
  • #7th worldwide by The Economist
  • #12 in North America by the 2010 QS Global 200 Business Schools Report

Stern's Langone MBA for Working Professionals is ranked #4 by U.S. News and World Report.

Global Executive Programs

Stern offers four Global Executive Programs.

  • TRIUM Global Executive MBA Program is a joint program with the London School of Economics and the HEC Paris. The TRIUM program ranked is ranked #3 in the world by the Financial Times 2012 review of EMBA programs.
  • Master of Science in Global Finance is a joint program with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
  • Master of Science in Risk Management
  • Master of Science in Business Analytics


Admissions decisions are made on a holistic basis that considers academic record, standardized test scores, accomplishments outside of the classroom, recommendations, essays, and diversity.

According to BusinessWeek, 7541 people applied for admission to the undergraduate program for the 2012-2013 academic year and 19% were admitted. In 2012-2013, the average combined verbal and math SAT score of incoming freshmen at the undergraduate level of Stern was 1444 and 54% of students had a high school GPA over 3.75. Applicants who are not British or American nationals are required to take the TOEFL.

Over 76% of the Stern population are within the top 10% of their high school graduating class. The internal and external transfer acceptance rate is about 12% and has remained steady through the years.

The MBA program's admission rate is one of the lowest in the country at 15.7%. The admitted (full-time) MBA students' average Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) score was 720 with an undergraduate average GPA of 3.51. The Stern School announced it will join the growing list of programs now accepting the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) from MBA candidates applying beginning in 2010. Applicants will have the option to submit either GMAT or GRE scores with their application.

Noted people

Student life

  • In 2005, Stern launched the Student Social Venture Fund Student Social Venture Fund, the first student-run venture philanthropy fund of its kind at a U.S. business school.
  • In 2012, Professor James B. Rosenwald and his wife, Laura made a contribution to Stern for the Rosenwald Global Value Student Investment Fund. Every year, a tenth of the fund will be invested in one or more stocks based on recommendations made by the students in his Global Value Investing class.

See also

  • List of business schools in the United States
  • List of United States business school rankings
  • Stern Global Programs
  • NYU Stern Center for Business and Human Rights


External links

  • Official website

New York University Stern School Of Business – Top Business ...


The Pamplin College of Business is one of Virginia Tech’s eight colleges. The college is named after Robert B. Pamplin and his son Robert B. Pamplin, Jr., who have donated over $28 million to their alma mater. The college is consistently ranked as one of the top business schools in the country. In 2011-2012, the college consisted of 152 faculty members and 4,168 students. The college's degree programs are accredited by The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International and the Accreditation Commission for Programs in Hospitality Administration.


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In 1925, the first bachelor's degree in business administration was offered at the university followed by the first master's degree in 1931. In 1961, the school of business was created with 28 faculty members and 823 students. The school soon became an official college of the university in 1965. Then, on 1969, the building housing the college was named for Robert B. Pamplin, a 1933 business graduate who later became chairman and chief executive officer of Georgia-Pacific Corporation. In 1986, the college itself was renamed for Pamplin in recognition of a $20 million gift he gave to the college along with his son, Robert B. Pamplin Jr., another Virginia Tech graduate and the president of the R. B. Pamplin Corporation.


The Pamplin College of Business is primarily located in Pamplin Hall on Virginia Tech’s Blacksburg campus, but it is also located in the National Capital Region. The college comprises 6 different departments. Five of the ten most recruited majors at Virginia Tech are in the Pamplin College of Business. According to 2011 undergraduate profiles in Bloomberg Businessweek, the average undergraduate class size in required business classes (excluding online courses) was 147 students, and the average class size in business electives was 57 students.

Department of Accounting and Information Systems

The Department of Accounting and Information Systems offers undergraduates bachelor's degrees in business with options available in accounting, information systems audit, and information systems. The department also has a Master of Accounting and Information Systems (MACIS) program and a doctoral program. After graduation, 98 percent of students from this department secured a job or space in the graduate program that they wanted.

Department of Business Information Technology

Through the Department of Business Information and Technology, undergraduate students can earn bachelor's degrees in business information technology. Majors can choose an option in decision support systems or operations and supply chain management. The department also offers a doctoral degree. In 2009-2010, the department had the fourth highest number of total on-campus interviews at the university. Students in the department had an average of 3.98 interviews, which is the highest at Virginia Tech. In addition, 86 percent of the department’s majors were employed or had job offers at the time of graduation, which was the highest percentage of all the departments at Virginia Tech. TechRepublic also listed the department as having one of the top 10 college programs for IT in the U.S.

Department of Finance

The Department of Finance contains an undergraduate program in finance that results in a bachelor's degree, an MBA program with a finance concentration, and a doctoral program. The department is associated with three student organizations for undergraduates: Student Endowment for Educational Development (SEED), BASIS (Bond and Securities Investing by Students), and The Finance Club. The former two organizations allow students to manage make actual investment decisions with funds from the Virginia Tech Foundation.

Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management

Students in the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management can earn a bachelor's degree, a master of science, or a doctoral degree. The department also has an MBA program at the National Capital Region campus. On the Blacksburg campus, undergraduates can join four student organizations affiliated with the department: the Hospitality Management Association, a chapter of the Club Management Association of America, and a chapter of the housing and tourism management honorary society Eta Sigma Delta, and the National Society for Minorities in Hospitality.

Department of Management

The Department of Management offers undergraduates a management major with options in entrepreneurship, innovation, and technology management and human resource management. Minors are available in business leadership and business.

Department of Marketing

Undergraduate students can earn a bachelor's degree through the Department of Marketing. They can also participate in any of the department’s three clubs: Prism, PSE, and the Marketing Club. The department also has a master’s program, an MBA program, and a Ph.D. program.

Distinguished Faculty

Kent Nakamoto, R.B. Pamplin Professor of Marketing and Department Head and Associate Dean for Research, is a two time winner of the American Marketing Association’s William F. O’Dell award, which recognizes the Journal of Marketing Research article that has made the most significant, long-term contribution to marketing theory, methodology, and/or practice.

Richard Wokutch, the R. B. Pamplin Professor in Management, is a two time Fulbright fellowship winner, who has gained recognition for his research related to business ethics.

Vijay Singal, the J. Gray Ferguson Professor of Finance, has had his research featured on television (CNNfn), on radio (National Public Radio, Bloomberg Radio), and in print media such as the Wall Street Journal, Barron's, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, New York Times, Investors Business Daily, SmartMoney, Fortune, and Money.


•Evening MBA program: No. 16 U.S. News and World Report 2014 Best Graduate Schools.
•The undergraduate program is ranked within the top 50 best business schools by U.S. News & World Report according to the 2015 Undergraduate Business Program ranking.
•The Undergraduate program ranks No. 39 overall and No. 23 among the public institutions according to U.S. News & World Report.
•Undergraduate program ranked No. 52 overall, No. 24 by employers, Bloomberg Businessweek, 2013.
•Master of information technology: No. 2 in the nation U.S. News and World Report 2014.
•Management: No. 24 for research productivity, Study by Texas A&M and University of Florida, 2012
•Accounting and information systems: No. 25 for undergraduate and master's programs in accounting Public Accounting Report, 32nd Annual Professor's Survey - schools with 22+ full-time accounting faculty, 2013
•Management, Marketing: two faculty members among world's top 25 business ethics scholars, Journal of Business Ethics, 2010.

Notable Alumni

  • Robert B. Pamplin (business administration 1933) was the president and chairman of the board of Georgia-Pacific and the founder of R.B. Pamplin Corporation in Portland, Ore. The Pamplin College of Business at Virginia Tech is named in his family’s honor.
  • Thomas C. Richards (general business 1956) is a former General in the United States Air Force and the former chief of staff of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe.
  • United States Air Force General Lance L. Smith (business administration 1969) served as the Commander, U.S. Joint Forces Command, Norfolk, Virginia, and NATO Supreme Allied Commander for Transformation from November 10, 2005 to November 9, 2007. A highly decorated combat veteran, the general retired from active duty on January 1, 2008.
  • Dave Calhoun (accounting 1979) is the chief executive officer of The Nielsen Company.
  • Wayne Robinson (finance 1980) is a retired American basketball player.
  • Bridget Ryan Berman (business administration 1982) is the chief executive officer of Victoria's Secret, the independent director of Tanger Factory Outlet Centers Inc., and a director of J Crew Operating Corp. She has also held positions in companies such as, Giorgio Armani Corporation, Apple Computer, Inc., and Polo Ralph Lauren Corp.
  • Doug Fritz (marketing 1982) was the president and general manager of Richmond International Raceway.
  • Vahan Janjigian (MBA 1982; Ph.D. finance 1985) is the chief investment strategist at Forbes, vice president and executive director of the Forbes Investors Advisory Institute, and editor of the Forbes Growth Investor and Special Situation Survey investment newsletters.
  • Robert B. Pamplin, Jr. is the chairman, president, and CEO of the R.B. Pamplin Corporation. The Pamplin College of Business at Virginia Tech and the Pamplin School of Business at the University of Portland are named in his honor.
  • Lynne Doughtie (accounting 1985) is a member of KPMG's management committee and leads Advisory for KPMG in the Americas Region, a network of KPMG member firms which includes more than 7,000 Advisory partners and professionals.
  • Gene Fife is currently Managing Principal of Vawter Capital, LLC and has been a director of Caterpillar Inc. since 2002. He was formerly a partner of Goldman Sachs, retiring in 1995, and he served as the interim CEO and President of Eclipsys Corporation (healthcare information services) from April to November 2005 and the non-executive Chairman from 2001 until 2010, when Eclipsys merged with Allscripts


External links

  • Pamplin COB Website
  • Marketing Department Website
  • Pamplin Magazine Website
  • Accounting and Information Systems Website

Virginia Tech

Pamplin College Of Business – Business Tech Schools


T-Mobile US, Inc. is a wireless network operator in the United States and the German telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom (DT) is a majority shareholder, through its holding company, T-Mobile International AG. Its headquarters are located in Bellevue, Washington.

T-Mobile US provides wireless voice, messaging, and data services in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands under the T-Mobile, MetroPCS and GoSmart Mobile brands. The company operates the third largest wireless network in the U.S. market with over 58.9 million customers and annual revenues of $29.56 billion. Its nationwide network reaches 96 percent of Americans, through its EDGE 2G/HSPA 3G/HSPA+ 4G/4G LTE networks (see section: Radio frequency spectrum chart). As of 2011, J. D. Power and Associates, a global marketing-information-services firm, ranked the company highest among major wireless carriers for retail-store satisfaction four years consecutively and highest for wireless customer care two years consecutively.

The company traces its roots to the 1994 establishment of VoiceStream Wireless PCS, originally a subsidiary of Western Wireless Corporation. Western Wireless spun off VoiceStream Wireless to shareholders in 1999, creating a public independent company, VoiceStream Wireless Corporation. In July 2002, VoiceStream Wireless Corporation was renamed T-Mobile USA.

After a failed attempt by AT&T in 2011 to purchase the company in a $39 billion stock and cash offer (which was withdrawn after being faced with significant regulatory and legal hurdles, along with heavy resistance from the U.S. government), T-Mobile USA announced its intent to merge with MetroPCS, the sixth largest carrier in the United States, to improve its competitiveness with other national carriers; the deal was approved by the Department of Justice and Federal Communications Commission in March 2013. On May 1, 2013, the combined company, renamed T-Mobile US, Inc., began trading as a public company on the New York Stock Exchange, under the symbol TMUS.


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T-Mobile US, Inc. traces its roots to the 1994 establishment of VoiceStream Wireless PCS as a subsidiary of Western Wireless Corporation. Spun off from parent Western Wireless on May 3, 1999, VoiceStream Wireless was purchased by Deutsche Telekom AG in 2001 for $35 billion and renamed T-Mobile USA, Inc. in July, 2002.

VoiceStream Wireless

VoiceStream Wireless PCS was established in 1994 as a subsidiary of Western Wireless Corporation to provide digital wireless personal communications services (PCS) in 19 FCC-defined metropolitan service areas in several western and southwestern states. VoiceStream Wireless' digital, urban service areas complemented the analog, rural service areas marketed by Western Wireless under the Cellular One brand.

Western Wireless spun off its VoiceStream Wireless division into a new company called VoiceStream Wireless Corporation in May 1999. VoiceStream Wireless completed mergers with Omnipoint Corporation in February, 2000 and Aerial Communications Inc. in May 2000.

Omnipoint and Aerial acquisitions

In 2000, VoiceStream Wireless acquired two regional GSM carriers. Omnipoint Corporation, a regional network operator in the Northeastern U.S., was acquired on February 25, 2000. Aerial Communications Inc.; a regional network operator in the Columbus, Houston, Kansas City, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Pittsburgh and Tampa-St. Petersburg-Orlando markets; was acquired on May 4, 2000. The combined company retired the Omnipoint and Aerial brands and completed integrating the three companies by converting to a single customer billing platform, implementing standard business practices and launching the VoiceStream brand and "GET MORE" marketing strategy in all markets.

Deutsche Telekom acquires VoiceStream and Powertel

On June 1, 2001, Deutsche Telekom (DT) completed the acquisition of VoiceStream Wireless Inc. for $35 billion and Southern U.S. regional GSM network operator Powertel, Inc. for $24 billion. By the end of 2001, VoiceStream Wireless had 19,000 employees serving 7 million subscribers.

In June 2001, VoiceStream Wireless Inc. took the name, T-Mobile USA, Inc. and began rolling out the T-Mobile brand, starting with locations in California and Nevada. T-Mobile USA, Inc. is the U.S. operating entity of T-Mobile International AG, the mobile communications subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom AG.

SunCom acquisition

On September 17, 2007, the company announced the acquisition of SunCom Wireless Holdings, Inc. for $2.4 billion; the acquisition closed on February 22, 2008. By September 8, 2008, SunCom's operations were integrated with those of the company. The acquisition added SunCom's 1.1 million customers to the company's customer base and expanded the company's network coverage to include southern Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee, northeastern Georgia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Attempted acquisition by AT&T

On March 20, 2011, DT accepted a $39 billion stock and cash purchase offer from AT&T for the company. The acquisition was subject to regulatory approvals, a reverse breakup fee in certain circumstances, and customary regulatory and closing conditions.

According to an industry analyst, after the introduction of the iPhone in 2007, T-Mobile began to lose contract customers, who dropped to 78 percent of subscribers in 2010, compared to 85 percent in 2006. Its high churn rate of 3.2 percent, compared to 1.2 percent at Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility, and the drop in contract customers made necessary investments in network upgrades and additional spectrum too risky, reinforcing DT's decision to sell.

Randall Stephenson, the chairman and chief executive officer of AT&T, expressed his confidence in the deal being approved based on the benefit to the public of expanding wireless access and relatively robust competition in the wireless market. The Alliance for Digital Equality, the Hispanic Federation, the National Black Chamber of Commerce and California Democratic representatives Loretta Sanchez and Joe Baca all supported the deal. Consumer groups Public Knowledge, Media Access Project, Consumers Union and the Computer & Communication Industry Association opposed the deal. Opposition groups stated numerous concerns with industry consolidation resulting in a reduction in competition and job losses.

If the merger had been completed, AT&T Mobility would have had a customer base of approximately 130 million users, making it the largest wireless carrier in the U.S.

On August 31, 2011, the United States Department of Justice sued to block AT&T's merger with T-Mobile on the grounds that it would "substantially lessen competition" in the wireless market. Further reports indicated that the FCC would likely oppose the merger.

On December 19, 2011, in the face of this heavy resistance from the U.S. government, AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson announced that the company had officially withdrawn its $39 billion bid. In an official statement, Stephenson addressed the continuing spectrum shortage (due to a significant increase in wireless demand), hinting that the company will continue to seek other options to solve the shortage in the short term.

Job cuts

On May 16, 2012, T-Mobile USA announced that it was cutting 900 jobs in an effort to preserve cash for further investment into its mobile network. This is in addition to the 1900 job cuts that were announced March 18, 2012, which included the shutdown of several call centers.

Merger with MetroPCS Communications

On October 3, 2012, MetroPCS Communications reached an agreement to merge with T-Mobile USA. MetroPCS shareholders would hold a 26% stake in the merged company, which retained the T-Mobile brand. While the merged company was still the fourth largest carrier in the United States (at the time), the acquisition gave T-Mobile access to more spectrum and financial resources to maintain competitiveness and expand its LTE network. The merger between T-Mobile USA Inc. and MetroPCS was officially approved by MetroPCS shareholders on April 24, 2013. The deal was structured as a reverse takeover; the combined company went public on the New York Stock Exchange as TMUS and became known as T-Mobile US Inc. on May 1, 2013. The merger agreement gave Deutsche Telekom the option to sell its 72% stake in the merged company, valued at around $14.2 billion, to a third-party before the end of the 18-month lock-up period.

Additional wireless spectrum acquisition

On June 28, 2013, T-Mobile agreed to buy wireless spectrum for the Mississippi Valley region from competitor U.S. Cellular for around $308 million, allowing the company to expand its 4G network across a further 29 markets.

On January 6, 2014, T-Mobile signed agreements with Verizon Wireless to purchase some 700 MHz A-Block spectrum licenses for $2.365 billion. Further, a transfer of some AWS and PCS spectrum licenses with a value of $950 million has been agreed upon by T-Mobile and Verizon. The acquisition reportedly will give T-Mobile additional coverage for approximately 158 million people in 9 of the top 10 and 21 of the top 30 US markets.

Attempted acquisition by Sprint

In December 2013, multiple reports indicated that Sprint Corporation and its parent company Softbank were working towards a deal to acquire a majority stake in T-Mobile for at least US$20 billion. The proposed merger, which would result in the country's major national carriers being controlled by only three companies, would further bolster T-Mobile's position in the overall market. Members of the government were skeptical that such an acquisition would be approved by regulators, citing antitrust concerns and an explicit goal by FCC chairman Tom Wheeler to maintain four national carriers in the United States. On April 30, 2014, Bloomberg reported that Sprint was in talks with its lenders to ensure that the company would be financially prepared for the bid, now valued at $24 billion and planned for "summer 2014". It was also reported that due to his success within the company, current T-Mobile CEO John Legere was the top contender to be named CEO of a merged Sprint/T-Mobile, and that Sprint had insisted on a low termination fee to prevent regulators from being given an incentive to block the deal, as had occurred with AT&T's failed attempt to purchase T-Mobile.

On August 1, 2014, Xavier Niel's Iliad SA publicly announced a US$16 billion all-cash counter-bid to acquire a 56% stake in T-Mobile US, which would be funded using equity and debt. Iliad is the parent company of French carrier Free Mobile, which had—similarly to T-Mobile, performed disruptive business moves to undercut its competitors, triggering a "price war" among them upon its launch in 2012. Credit Suisse analysts felt that the bid would not be "attractive" to the company's current shareholders due to its lower value in comparison to Sprint's bid, but could "put pressure on Sprint to move sooner rather [than] later."

On August 4, 2014, Bloomberg reported that Sprint had abandoned its bid to acquire T-Mobile, considering the unlikelihood that such a deal would be approved by the U.S. government and its regulators.

Wireless networks

The company owns licenses to operate a cellular communications network in the 1900 MHz (PCS) and 1700 MHz (AWS) bands with coverage in many parts of the continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as licenses in the 700Mhz (block A) band available in certain parts of the country. With respect to technology, depending on the location, in the 1900Mhz band it deploys GSM, UMTS/HSPA+, and/or LTE (B2); in the 1700Mhz band it deploys UMTS/HSPA+ and/or LTE (B4); and LTE (B12) only in the 700A band. Its LTE network also supports VoLTE. It provides coverage in areas where it does not own radio frequency spectrum licenses via roaming agreements with other operators of compatible networks.

Cellular network

The company's predecessor, VoiceStream Wireless, began building a regional, 2G, 1900 MHz GSM, circuit switched, digital cellular network in 1994 and first offered service in 1996 in Honolulu, Hawaii, and Salt Lake City, Utah. From that starting point, the network has expanded in size through acquisitions of other cellular-network operators and additional spectrum purchases. The network has expanded in capabilities through the introduction of new technologies. VoiceStream upgraded the 1900 MHz network to include packet switching via General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), then increased packet switched data transmission speeds via Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE). In 2006, the company spent $4.2 billion to purchase 120 D, E or F block 1700 MHz AWS licenses and began rolling out 3G UMTS services in those frequency bands. Most recently, the company has been upgrading network equipment and back-haul capabilities to enable first HSPA (High Speed Packet Access), then HSPA+ (Evolved HSPA) services in the AWS bands. It is marketing its HSPA+ services as 4G.

As of 2010, the company's network reached over 293 million potential subscribers. (96% of the US.)

Packet-switched data upgrade

Packet-switched data service first became available to users in the form of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Packet-switched data speeds increased when Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) was incorporated into the network. EDGE coverage was available within at least forty percent of the GSM footprint.

Both voice capacity and packet-switched data speeds improved when 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) equipment was installed in the network. On January 5, 2010, the company announced that it has upgraded its entire 3G network to HSPA 7.2 Mbit/s, an improvement from its previous peak of 3.6 Mbit/s. It also said that it plans to be the first U.S. carrier to deploy HSPA+ across its network by mid-2010. The company has finished HSPA+ trials in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and has begun deploying HSPA+ across its network.

3G upgrade

In September 2006, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) auctioned licenses in the first Advanced Wireless Services band. This band was an area of wireless spectrum, half in the 1700 MHz (1.7 GHz) and half in the 2100 MHz (2.1 GHz) frequencies, that was already in use by government services. The spectrum was planned to become available after the government users migrated to different frequencies.

The auction made numerous licenses available in overlapping market-areas, economic-areas, and regional levels. Each license was individually bid upon, and T-Mobile USA was the winner in 120 license auctions, at an aggregate price of $4.18 billion. As part of its winnings, T-Mobile USA gained nationwide coverage of 1.7 GHz and 2.1 GHz, with numerous areas being supplemented with additional licenses. Examples include New York City, Chicago, and Boston where T-Mobile USA acquired one-third (33 percent) of the available spectrum, or San Francisco, Houston, and Miami where they acquired 45 percent of the available spectrum.

October 6, 2006, two weeks after confirming its winning bids, the company announced its intentions to create a UMTS third-generation, or 3G, cellular network with the spectrum it had won. It said it would utilize and build on the experience of T-Mobile International's European subsidiaries, which already implemented 3G networks. At the time of initial roll-out, the company intended to offer 7.2 Mbit/s service, making the company's 3G network the fastest in the U.S. The upgrade was forecast to cost $2.6 billion, in addition to the $4.12 billion spent to acquire the spectrum licenses.

In the same announcement, the company indicated it had already begun to deploy about half of the upgraded equipment, beginning in major markets such as New York City. With the equipment in place, it would be able to activate its network as soon as the government agencies vacated the spectrum. The company had hoped to have its network activated by mid-2007, but as of September 2007, the government users had not vacated the AWS band.

The company began selling its first 3G-capable phone, the Nokia 6263, in November 2007 and announced in February 2008 that its 3G network would finally be activated "within the next few months". and released in the New York City market on May 1, 2008.

To date, the company has launched its 3G network in most of its top markets. They plan to launch in additional markets as they are tuned for optimal performance, and in conjunction with marketing programs for new services and handsets. In 2009, the company upgraded more than 200 markets, covering some 208 million points of presence (POPS).

HSPA/HSPA+ upgrade

The company has begun rolling out its HSPA+ capabilities throughout its cellular network, planning to complete an upgrade of the entire network by the end of 2010, covering 185 million potential subscribers. On September 2, 2009, Nokia launched the N900, which was the first device to support the upgraded HSPA+ network.

On June 28, 2010, the company announced that it would begin to upgrade the network from HSPA+ 21 to HSPA+ 42 beginning sometime in 2011. T-Mobile is marketing its HSPA+ services as 4G.

4G LTE upgrade

On February 23, 2012, during the Q4 Earnings Call, T-Mobile laid out the future of their 4G upgrade path. They will roll out the LTE network on the AWS spectrum, and transition their HSPA+ network to the PCS band. To achieve compatibility with other networks and phones in the USA, T-Mobile began this transition in March 2013, and the rollout of LTE is currently underway as T-Mobile expands to more markets. Due to the failed acquisition of T-Mobile USA by AT&T, T-Mobile USA received additional UMTS frequency band IV (AWS) spectrum. On March 26, 2013, T-Mobile began rolling out LTE in 7 markets: Baltimore, San Jose, Washington, D.C., Phoenix, Las Vegas, Kansas City, Houston. T-Mobile is continuing to push forward its HSPA+ 42 network as well, alongside implementing LTE into its nationwide network.

On August 21, 2012, the FCC approved a deal between T-Mobile and Verizon in which T-Mobile gains additional AWS spectrum licenses in 125 Cellular Market Areas.

On February 25, 2014, T-Mobile announced in their Q4 2013 earnings call that their 4G LTE network covers 209 million people in 273 metro areas. They also plan to start rolling out their 700 MHz A-Block spectrum by the end of 2014, which by the end of the roll out will cover 158 million people. This spectrum will lead to improved LTE coverage overall in these areas, particularly indoors.

On March 13, 2014, T-Mobile announced a new plan to upgrade its entire 2G/EDGE network to 4G LTE. They expect 50% to be done by the end of 2014, and it to be "substantially complete" by the middle of 2015.

On December 16, 2014, T-Mobile announced during CEO John Legere's Un-carrier 8.0 interview that their 4G LTE network covered 260 million people and their 700 MHz Band 12 LTE had been rolled out in Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Minneapolis, Washington, D.C. They expected to cover 280 million with LTE by mid-2015 and 300 million by the end of 2015. They also stated that they covered 121 metro areas with their Wideband LTE.


T-Mobile has roaming arrangements with a number of regional mobile network operators, including Centennial Wireless (a subsidiary of AT&T Mobility), Dobson Cellular (a subsidiary of AT&T Mobility), and Rural Cellular Corporation (a subsidiary of Verizon Wireless) and with the national mobile network operators AT&T Mobility and the former Alltel Corporation (a subsidiary of Verizon Wireless) GSM network. These carriers predominately provided service using the GSM 850 MHz band, and a dual-band phone is required to use both the native and affiliate networks. When roaming on these affiliated networks, airtime is deducted from the user's plan, effectively expanding T-Mobile US's nationwide coverage.

As of 2008, prepaid customers have almost all of the postpaid domestic roaming privileges and restricted international roaming to Canada and Mexico.

On June 29, 2010, the company launched voice service in the Gulf of Mexico on GSM via roaming agreement through Broadpoint. T-Mobile USA was scheduled to launch data service in Fall 2010.

In 2009, T-Mobile USA began removing AT&T Mobility roaming coverage in many locations across the country, and updated its on-line coverage maps to reflect the smaller coverage area. AT&T Mobility roaming remains available in select locations, primarily on smaller carriers that were acquired by AT&T Mobility after long term roaming contracts were in place between T-Mobile and the smaller carriers, including Centennial Wireless and Edge Wireless.

On October 9, 2013, T-Mobile announced Simple Global, a service included with eligible Simple Choice plans. This service allows one to roam in over 100 countries with unlimited text and speed-limited data, and make calls at $0.20/minute. High-speed data passes will be available for purchase. On March 7, 2014, T-Mobile announced this number will be increasing to 122 countries. If one is connected to WiFi in one of these countries, and their phone supports WiFi calling, all calls to and from the USA are free, and texting works the same it would on cellular.

On July 15, 2015, T-Mobile announced Mobile Without Borders, a service included with all new T-Mobile plans and available as an add-on to grandfathered or promotional plans for $10. This service allows the user to use their normal voice, text message, and data allotments while roaming in Mexico and Canada. Most T-Mobile services are available while roaming, with the notable exception of using the data in one's Data Stash.

Radio frequency spectrum chart

The following chart describes radio frequency spectrum bands accessible by the company's customers using compatible GSM-based devices.

GSM Network
CDMA network (MetroPCS)

The following table lists bands formerly accessible by MetroPCS CDMA phones. T-Mobile has discontinued selling CDMA phones through any channel. Starting from June 2013, T-Mobile sells MetroPCS branded GSM phones that access the network above. T-Mobile has shut down the CDMA network and integrated LTE networks on June 21, 2015. As of early 2015, 92% of MetroPCS subscribers had migrated to GSM devices, and the shutdown of the CDMA network in markets such as Boston, Dallas, Las Vegas and Sacramento started in July 2014.

T-Mobile HotSpots

T-Mobile has used the term "Hotspot" to represent various products and technologies.

Wi-Fi network (public)

The company operates a nationwide Wi-Fi Internet access network under the T-Mobile HotSpots brand. The T-Mobile HotSpots network consists of thousands of Wi-Fi access points installed in businesses, hotels and airports throughout the U.S.

The T-Mobile HotSpot service offers access to a nationwide network of approximately 8,350 access points, installed in venues such as Starbucks coffeehouses, FedEx Office Office and Print Centers, Hyatt hotels and resorts, Red Roof Inns, Sofitel hotels, Novotel hotels, the airline clubs of American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines and US Airways, and airports.

The T-Mobile HotSpots network can be traced to the company's 2002 purchase of bankrupt wireless ISP MobileStar, which began building its network in 1998. After completing the purchase, the company expanded the network into 400 Borders bookstores, as well as 100 of the most-frequented airport clubs and lounges operated by American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and United Airlines.

Wi-Fi network (private)

T-Mobile has also used the term to describe Wi-Fi Access Points that it sold to end users to expand their cell phone network to phones equipped to also receive Wi-Fi using a VOIP-like technology. (The models included at least two by Linksys: the WRTU54G-TM and the WRT54G-TM and one by D-Link: the TM-G5240.)

T-Mobile products and services

The "Un-carrier"

In March 2013, T-Mobile introduced a new streamlined plan structure for new customers as part of an initiative called Un-carrier, which drops contracts, subsidized phones, overage fees for data, and early termination fees.

Simple Choice (Un-carrier 1.0)

The contract-free Simple Choice Plan offers unlimited calling and text messaging and 500MB of unthrottled data monthly for a base price of $50. The data can be upgraded to 2.5 GB or unlimited for an extra monthly fee. In March 2014, these amounts were changed to 1 GB free or 3 GB, 5 GB or unlimited upgrade, for the same $50 per month. Under the arrangement, customers pay a portion of their device's price up-front, and pay off the remainder through monthly payments for two years. The cost of that monthly payment depends on the device. The customer fully owns the phone and no longer makes any future payments once they have completed paying off their phone. A second line costs $30 extra, while any additional line beyond this costs $10 extra (before extra data) Family plans begin at $80. There is also a prepaid plan that gives 100 minutes of calling, unlimited text, and 5GB of data up to 4G (HSPA+ and/or LTE) speeds for $30 a month.

Value-added services (Un-carrier 2.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0 and Amped 2.0)

On July 10, 2013, T-Mobile introduced Jump as their second phase of the "Un-carrier", a new add-on for its monthly plans which allows customers to upgrade their phone up to two times per year, by trading in their phone to purchase a new one at the same price as a new customer. T-Mobile users with Jump! as of Feb 14th are no longer required to wait 6 months for the first upgrade. AT&T and Verizon require that customers wait 2 years before they can upgrade their phone.

On June 18, 2014, T-Mobile also announced that data used on certain streaming music services would no longer count to users data limits. At the time of the announcement, these services include: Pandora, Spotify, Rhapsody, Google Play Music, iTunes Radio, Slacker, Milk Music, Beatport, and iHeartRadio. In addition, users are also able to vote for more music services to be selected for inclusion into this program. T-Mobile has partnered with Rhapsody to offer "UnRadio," a streaming radio service with unlimited skips, no ads, and offline playback. The service will be free to unlimited T-Mobile customers, and will be available to all others for a nominal fee, which varies between T-Mobile and non-T-Mobile customers. On November 24, 2014 this was expanded to add an additional 14 music services.

On September 10, 2014, T-Mobile announced an agreement with Gogo Inflight Internet to provide free text messages and visual voicemail to T-Mobile customers on Gogo-equipped U.S. flights. Second, all customers were made eligible to upgrade to a device that supports Wi-Fi Calling. Third, the T-Mobile Personal CellSpot home router allows users to make calls from their home using their broadband connection.

On December 16, 2014, T-Mobile announced "Data Stash", which lets users carry over unused high-speed data usage for up to one year. The feature applies to customers of eligible post-paid plans who purchase qualifying amounts of additional high-speed data.

On March 16, 2015, T-Mobile announced that Data Stash would be extended to Simple Choice prepaid customers.

On June 27, 2015 T-Mobile announced the JUMP! On Demand program which permits three upgrades per year instead of the two offered by the original JUMP!, and it dropped the $10/month fee for the original JUMP! plan.

Roaming (Un-carrier 3.0 and Amped)

On October 9, 2013, T-Mobile introduced their third phase of the "Un-carrier", which was the introduction of basically free international roaming. See section Roaming for more information.

On October 23, 2013, T-Mobile announced a Un-carried 3.5 promo offer, which gave customers 200MB of free data for their tablets. They also announced $0 down for most tablets, including the newly to them arrived iPads.

On July 9, 2015, T-Mobile launched Mobile Without Borders to offer high speed data roaming while in Canada and Mexico at no additional cost, in addition to providing unlimited talk and text roaming in these countries via Simple Global. The domestic high speed allowance is used while roaming, after which slower speeds or deprioritization may apply. Furthermore, calls and texts to Canada and Mexico from the U.S. carry no extra fee.

Incentives for new customers (Un-carrier 4.0 and 5.0)

On January 8, 2014, T-Mobile announced its Un-carrier 4.0, which gave customers the chance to "Get Out Of Jail Free". T-Mobile is offering to pay ETFs, up to $375 per line, when one trades in current devices.

On June 18, 2014, T-Mobile announced that they would give users iPhone 5Ss to test out T-Mobile's network for a week. This offer is limited to once per household per year. Apple is providing T-Mobile with free iPhones for this promotion.

Un-carrier for Business (Un-carrier 9.0)

On March 18, 2015, T-Mobile announced their new business initiatives, including simplified pricing, a special 24/7 business support team, and extending existing un-carrier benefits (global roaming, WiFi calling and texting for compatible devices, free in-flight texting, etc.) to business lines. Families of employees can also receive discounts through this program.

T-Mobile also emphasized a dramatic coverage expansion initiative for 2015, planning to reach an additional 1 million square miles of native coverage in the lower 48 states, and expanded their "Contract Freedom" (now called "Carrier Freedom") promotion to cover device and lease payoffs.

T-Mobile additionally announced that its customers' prices they pay are good forever, as long as they keep service on their lines, including if they utilize promotional pricing.

Former (Un-carrier 4.5)

On April 9, 2014, T-Mobile released their first of three parts to their "Un-carrier 4.5" initiative. This was a new, low-cost called "Simple Starter". Like "Simple Choice", it includes unlimited talk and text. The main difference is that "Simple Starter" only included 500 MB of data, after which Internet access was disabled until the next billing cycle or until more access was purchased. Other "Simple Choice" features, such as Simple Global and Music Unleashed, are unavailable on "Simple Starter". This plan was later replaced by a slightly pricier variant, featuring 2 GB of Internet access instead of 500 MB. "Simple Starter" has since been discontinued for new customers.

On April 10, 2014, T-Mobile released their second part of the "Un-carrier 4.5" initiative, specifically for tablets. This included a promotion that, for a limited time, sold tablets with built-in 4G LTE modems at the same price as a tablet without said modem. The initiative also included the ETF payoff program extending to tablet customers. The final part was a promotional price for mobile Internet.

On April 14, 2014, T-Mobile announced their final part to their "Un-carrier 4.5" initiative. T-Mobile abolished overages for all T-Mobile customers on all plans, current and grandfathered. CEO John Legere also started a petition to other carriers to do the same.

Capping unlimited data users

On August 31, 2015, T-Mobile announced it will ask users who abuse its unlimited on-smartphone data plan by violating T-Mobile's Terms & Conditions regarding tethering (which like unlimited on-smartphone data, remains unlimited, however, offers a 5-7 GB high speed allotment before throttling takes effect), by permanently removing user access to unlimited plans and migrating users to a tiered data plan. By doing so, all plans after a selecteamount of inclusive high-speed data, result in automatic thottled speeds, preventing unlimited high-speed tethering use and abuse of the network. T-Mobile stated that there are a small handful of users who abuse the tethering plan by altering device software and/or the use of an Android app that masks T-Mobile's ability monitoring whether data is on-smartphone, or through smartphone mobile hotspot (tethering) by mimicking all data as on-smartphone use, with some customers abusing the service by using as much as 2 TB's per month, causing speed issues for all other customers.

InReach program

The InReach program provides a free cell phone and a limited number of voice minutes each month for low-income-eligible families (one per family) who do not use Lifeline services offered by any other phone or wireless company. It is funded through the Universal Service Fund, but is only operational in a limited number of states and Puerto Rico.


MetroPCS was taken over by T-Mobile in 2013, the new company formed T-Mobile US and currently continues to offer prepaid wireless services under the MetroPCS brand.

GoSmart Mobile

GoSmart Mobile is a T-Mobile US subsidiary brand service that launched in Beta on December 7, 2012, and became officially available nationwide on February 19, 2013. GoSmart offers no-contract SIM wireless services.

Phones and SIMs

  • GoSmart Mobile SIM kit
  • Alcatel OT 838
  • ZTE V768

Authorized Dealers

GoSmart Mobile sources its services to dealers who work as independent contractors under their own company name. Such sellers are known as "Authorized Dealers" with either physical or online stores.

Banking Cards

On January 22, 2014, T-Mobile announced that it would expand its products into banking. T-Mobile would provide Visa card with banking features and a smartphone money management application with reduced-fee or zero-cost services for T-Mobile wireless customers. In addition, customers would have access to over 42,000 ATMs with no fees.

Customer service


From as early as 2004, the company has captured multiple J. D. Power annual awards in the areas of retail sales satisfaction, wireless customer care, and overall customer satisfaction. In 2011, J. D. Power and Associates stated that T-Mobile retail stores achieved the highest ratings among major wireless carriers for customer satisfaction for the fourth consecutive year, performing particularly well in price and promotions. Also in 2011, J. D. Power and Associates ranked T-Mobile USA highest among major providers in wireless customer care for the second consecutive year.


Sidekick data outage

On October 1, 2009, Sidekick users lost all data functionality and some users also experienced personal data loss including contacts, notes, and calendars. On October 8, most data services were restored to some users but the company and Microsoft announced on October 10 that data "almost certainly has been lost as a result of a server failure at Microsoft/Danger." On October 15, Microsoft said it had been able to recover most or all data and would begin to restore it. A few weeks later, all Sidekick customers were able to recover their data via Danger's sync website using a restore file, or had the option to wait until data was restored to the device itself. Due to this outage, many users abandoned the Sidekick for another device, or left T-Mobile USA for another carrier entirely.

Network outage

On November 9, 2009, the company's subscribers lost the ability to send and receive calls and text messages. The company confirmed the outage via Twitter and later stated that five percent of its user base had been affected. It blamed a software error for the service interruption, stating that a backend system software error had generated abnormal congestion on the network. The root cause was determined and steps were taken to update a patch on the backend as a permanent resolution.

On February 13 and March 25, 2015; T-Mobile suffered LTE outages along the east coast causing users to lose data connections.


Jamie Lee Curtis was the spokesperson for T-Mobile USA's predecessor, VoiceStream Wireless, since 1998. VoiceStream's advertising slogan was: "Get more from life". During the transition to the T-Mobile brand, Jamie Lee Curtis continued as spokesperson for a short time and the slogan was changed to "T-Mobile. Get More."

Starting in 2002, the company's spokesperson was Catherine Zeta-Jones who was the main figure in its branding strategy. As of September 2006, Zeta-Jones had officially been dropped as the "face" of the company for its advertising campaigns due to a corporate rebranding strategy. The company also relied on rapper Snoop Dogg as the spokesperson for its T-Mobile Sidekick in a series of commercials late in 2004, the company also released a series of Sidekick phones known as the D-Wade Edition for basketball player Dwyane Wade.

The company is also an official sponsor of the Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, the NBA Rookie Challenge and the Women's National Basketball Association.

In 2009, it changed its approach to advertising, and moved from the "Get More" slogan to a "Stick Together" slogan to focus more on the personal aspect of staying together with those who matter the most to its customers. The slogan was also meant to promote its MyFaves calling-circle plan. With this the company also ended its relationship with Zeta-Jones, and now use mainly non-celebrity spokespeople (though Dwyane Wade, Charles Barkley, and Dwight Howard are featured in some commercials, in association with the company's sponsorship of the NBA as official wireless provider).

In late May 2009, Zeta-Jones was brought back as a company spokesperson to show customers how to pay less for their wireless plan in a new "Mobile Makeovers" advertising campaign that refers customer to third-party comparison site

In late 2009, commercials for the T-Mobile MyTouch 3G featured the song "If You Want to Sing Out, Sing Out" by Cat Stevens and celebrities such as Chevy Chase, Molly Shannon, Dana Carvey and Darrell Hammond. Another commercial with the same song performed by a different artist showed Wyclef Jean, Avril Lavigne and Brad Paisley.

Carly Foulkes is the spokeswoman for the myTouch 4G in commercials that parody the Get a Mac campaign. The model is known for Rugby Ralph Lauren ads. Although Foulkes is often identified with the color pink, T-Mobile actually has a color trademark for the color magenta, and markets itself using its corporate colors. Virgin Mobile has, in turn, parodied the Carly Foulkes ads.

In September 2010, the company launched "Kids are free till 2012" for family lines.

On December 1, 2011, a group of 100 Chicago-area women, along with Carly Foulkes, were featured in a flash-mob style performance at Woodfield Mall in Schaumburg, Illinois, where the group, dressed in magenta dresses, sang and danced through the mall's atrium to their cover of (There's No Place Like) Home for the Holidays. The performance was filmed and edited into a holiday commercial, which was a success.

Labor relations

T-Mobile US employees and two labor unions have led multiple unionization attempts beginning as early as 2001.

Formation of TU

Hundreds of T-Mobile employees, with the backing of the Communications Workers of America (CWA) and the German union ver.di, have joined together as TU to gain representation at T-Mobile. In July, 2011, technicians in Connecticut, voted for representation by the Communications Workers of America-TU. On September 25, 2013, MetroPCS workers in Harlem, NY, voted for a union voice and representation by CWA-TU.

2009 coordinated organizing effort

In 2008, the CWA and ver.di launched a coordinated effort to unionize company employees. A spokesman for the CWA called on the company to stop resisting mobilization efforts and allow company employees to unionize as German employees of T-Mobile USA's parent company, DT, have done. In response, the company released an employee satisfaction study showing that more than seventy percent of the company's 40,000 workers were "very satisfied" with their jobs. Through a spokesman, the company stated, "Despite the Communication Workers of America's periodic organizing efforts for more than nine years, no group of T-Mobile employees has ever chosen to be represented by a union. While our company is always striving to find ways to improve, year after year, employees continue to view T-Mobile as a good place to work where they have no need for, or interest in, a union."

Political pressure

In 2009, a number of politicians, in one case acting after lobbying efforts by CWA union activists, wrote letters to René Obermann, DT's chief executive officer, in an effort to influence T-Mobile USA's labor practices in the U.S.

In a March 13, 2009, letter, U.S. Senator John Kerry (D-MA) asked "why the company's approach to labor rights are different in Germany than in the United States". In an April 30, 2010, letter sent after lobbying by Communications Workers of America activists, 26 Democratic members of Congress called on DT to protect and respect workers' rights in the U.S. A separate July 1, 2010, letter from seven Republicans addressed the same issue. On August 10, 2010, U.S. Senator Bob Casey (D-PA) released a statement in support of the worker's efforts to organize a union at the company. In a letter, dated September 21, 2010, fifteen Californian Members of Congress urged Obermann to take action and implement fair and equitable labor relations.

In a November 5, 2009, letter, Thomas DiNapoli, New York State Comptroller and Trustee of the New York State Common Retirement Fund, stated concerns about "the potential impact on the value of T-Mobile that may result from a disenfranchised workforce and the associated negative publicity that may impact T-Mobile's profitability."


On December 9, 2009, the non-profit organization American Rights at Work published a report written by Prof. John Logan, Director of Labor Studies at San Francisco State University, titled "Lowering the Bar or Setting the Standard? Deutsche Telekom's U.S. Labor Practices". The report details behavior by the company that the author perceives as anti-union including dissemination of anti-union materials, intimidation and threats directed at pro-union workers, "captive audience meetings" and the retention of anti-union specialists. In the report, which is based on documents from the National Labor Relations Board, internal company memos and handbooks, and interviews with workers, Logan asserts that the company engaged in a systematic campaign to prevent employees from forming a union and that DT was guilty of operating by a double standard. He claims that Deutsche Telekom respects workers' rights in Germany, where it cooperates closely with unions, but mistreats workers in the United States and interferes with their right to organize.

On September 2, 2010, Human Rights Watch released a report written by Lance Compa titled "A Strange Case: Violations of Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States by European Multinational Corporations". The report concludes that "company policy has translated into practices that leave the workforce fearful about even seeking union representation." DT proclaims its adherence to international labor law and standards that are embodied in German domestic laws. But HRW found that "T-Mobile USA's harsh opposition to workers' freedom of association in the United States betrays Deutsche Telekom's purported commitment to social responsibility, impedes constructive dialogue with employee representatives, and in several cases, has violated ILO and OECD labor and human rights standards".

Workplace activities

At the company's Allentown, Pennsylvania, call center, security guards were ordered by company managers to write up incident reports whenever union supporters appeared on nearby public grounds and to record the license plate numbers of employees who stopped to take leaflets. In 2006, the National Labor Relations Board found that these activities violated Section 8(a)(1) of the National Labor Relations Act.

In 2008, company management in the Pacific Northwest and Southwest Retail Divisions sent a memorandum to store managers instructing them to immediately report any union activity to their supervisors. Human Rights Watch states, "The NLRB has long held that such activity interferes with, restrains, and coerces employees in the exercise of Section 7 rights in violation of workers' right to freedom of association."

Information Security

Nicolas Jacobsen was charged with intruding into the company's internal network in January 2005. Reports indicated that for about a year Jacobsen had access to customer passwords, e-mail, address books, Social Security numbers, birth dates, and Sidekick photos. Affected customers included members of the United States Secret Service. Secret Service informant identified Jacobsen as part of "Operation Firewall" which provided evidence that Jacobsen had attempted to sell customer information to others for identity theft. T-Mobile USA and the Secret Service did not elaborate on the methods Jacobsen used to gain access but sources close to the case indicated that Jacobsen exploited an unpatched flaw in the Oracle WebLogic Server application software used by the company. Additional SQL injection vulnerabilities with the company's web site were reported by Jack Koziol of the InfoSec Institute.

T-Mobile offers access to voice mail without the input of a password by default. Parties acting in bad faith may be able to access such voice mailboxes via Caller ID spoofing. To avoid this possibility, T-Mobile recommends that all customers password protect their mailboxes, but still offers the no password configuration by default due to customer demand.

On June 6, 2009, a message posted from an email account "" to the Full Disclosure mailing list claimed that the company's network had been breached and showed sample data. The sender offered "databases, confidential documents, scripts and programs from their servers, financial documents up to 2009" to the highest bidder. On June 9, the company issued a statement confirming the breach but stating that customer data was safe. It claimed to have identified the source document for the sample data and believe it was not obtained by hacking. A later statement claimed that there was not any evidence of a breach.

Privacy and surveillance

T-Mobile USA received a portion of the 1.3 million largely warrantless law enforcement requests for subscriber information (including text messages and phone location data) made in 2011, but refused to state how many requests it received. It did say that in the last decade, the number of requests have increased by 12 to 16 percent annually.

Data retention policies

According to T-Mobile's privacy policy highlights, "Retention and Disposal", information is retained for as long as there is business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations, or government orders require. T-Mobile notes that it disposes of Personal Information, uses reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media).

In 2010, the Department of Justice (DOJ) released a document entitled, "Retention Periods of Major Cellular Providers," to advise law enforcement agents seeking to obtain cell phone records. This document was uncovered by the ACLU's coordinated records request on cell phone location tracking by police. Notably, the document showed that T-Mobile subscriber information was retained for 5 years and call detail records were kept for 2 years (prepaid) and 5 years (postpaid).

In 2013, Massachusetts Sen. Edward Markey revealed responses from the top four U.S. wireless providers as well as U.S. Cellular, C Spire, and Cricket/Leap Wireless, to his inquiry regarding user information disclosed to law enforcement officials. The following was T-Mobile's response regarding data retention: T-Mobile US retains customers' historic cell site information and cell tower dump information (180 days); call details records (7–10 years); text message content, data requests, and geo-location data not stored; voicemail content (up to 21 days); subscriber information (6 years after account is closed).

Comparing the 2010 DOJ memo released by the ACLU and Massachusetts Senator Edward Markey's 2013 wireless data retention disclosures, it should be noted that T-Mobile increased the retention period for subscriber information from 5 years to 6 years. T-Mobile also increased its call detail record retention from 2 years (prepaid) and 5 years (postpaid) to 7–10 years.

See also

  • MetroPCS, a T-Mobile US brand
  • Lycamobile, an MVNO based on T-Mobile in the US.
  • NET10 Wireless, an MVNO based on T-Mobile and other carriers in the US.
  • Simple Mobile, an MVNO based on T-Mobile in the US.
  • List of companies based in Bellevue, Washington
  • List of United States wireless communications service providers


External links

Official websites

  •, T-Mobile US, company's official website
  •, Deutsche Telekom AG homepage Parent company
  •, MetroPCS's official website
  •, GoSmart Mobile's official website

Business Data

  • T-Mobile US at Google Finance
  • T-Mobile US at Yahoo Finance
  • T-Mobile US at Reuters
  • T-Mobile US SEC Filing at Securities and Exchange Commission

T-Mobile US – T Mobile Business Customer Service Phone Number


Voice Mail System (also known as voice mail, voice message or voice bank) is a computer based system that allows users and subscribers to exchange personal voice messages; to select and deliver voice information; and to process transactions relating to individuals, organizations, products and services, using an ordinary telephone. The term is also used more broadly to denote any system of conveying a stored telecommunications voice messages, including using an answering machine. Most cell phone services offer voice-mail as a basic feature, many corporate PBXs include versatile internal voice-messaging services and *98 Vertical service code subscription is available to most individual and small business land line subscribers.

History of voicemail

Voice Mail Phone System - Voice Mail Phone System verizon home voicemail system phone number, phone system with voicemail, small business phone voice mail systems, avaya phone ...

The term Voicemail was coined by Televoice International (later became Voicemail International) for introduction of the first nationwide Voicemail® service in 1980.  Although VMI trademarked the term, it eventually became a generic term used for referring to virtually all automated voice services employing a telephone.  Voicemail popularity continues today with Internet telephone services such as Skype, Google Voice and ATT that integrate voice, voicemail and text services for tablets and smartphones

Voicemail systems were developed in the late 70s by Voice Message Exchange (VMX). They became popular in the early 80s when they were made available on PC-based boards. In September 2012 a report from USA Today and Vonage claimed that Voice mail was in decline. The report said that the number of voicemail messages declined 8 percent compared to 2011.

Voicemail features

Voicemail systems are designed to convey a caller's recorded audio message to a recipient. To do so they contain a user interface to select, play, and manage messages; a delivery method to either play or otherwise deliver the message; and a notification ability to inform the user of a waiting message. Most systems use phone-networks, either cellular or land-line based, as the conduit for all of these functions. Some systems may use multiple telecommunications methods, permitting recipients and callers to retrieve or leave messages through multiple methods such as PCs, PDA, Cellphones or Smartphones.

Simple voicemail systems function as a remote answering machine using touch-tones as the user interface. More complicated systems may use other input devices such as voice or a computer interface. Simpler voice-mail systems may play the audio message through the phone, while more advanced systems may have alternative delivery methods, including email or text message delivery, message transfer and forwarding options, and multiple mailboxes.

Almost all modern voicemail systems use digital storage and are typically stored on computer data storage. Notification methods also vary based on the voice-mail system. Simple systems may not provide active notification at all, instead requiring the recipient to check with the system, while others may provide an indication that messages are waiting.

More advanced systems may be integrated with a company’s PABX, with a call center ACD for automatic call distribution; with mobile or paging terminals for message alert; and computer systems/data bases for delivering information or processing orders. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems may use digital information stored in a corporate data base to select pre-recorded words and phrases stored in a voice-mail vocabulary to form sentences that are delivered to the caller.

Message centers

The conventional solution to efficient handling of telephone communication in businesses was the "message center." A message center or "message desk" was a centralized, manual answering service inside a company staffed by a few operators who answered all incoming phone calls. Extensions that were busy or rang "no answer" would forward to the message center using a device called a "call director". The call director had a button for each extension in the company which would flash when that person's extension forwarded to the message center. A little label next to the button told the operator the person being called.

While it was an improvement over basic multi-line systems, the message center had many disadvantages. Many calls would come in simultaneously at peak periods, such as lunch time, and operators were often busy. This left message attendants with little time to take each message accurately. Often, they were not familiar with employees' names and "buzzwords" and how to spell or pronounce them. Messages were scribbled on pink slips and distributed by the internal mail system and messages, often arrived at people's desks after lengthy delays, contained little content other than the caller's name and number, and were often inaccurate, with misspelled names and wrong phone numbers.

Tape-based telephone answering machines had come into the residential telephone market, but they weren't used much in the corporate environment due to physical limitations of the technology. One answering machine was needed for each telephone; messages couldn't be recorded if the user was using the phone; messages had to be retrieved in sequential order; and messages couldn't be retrieved remotely, selectively discarded, saved, or forwarded to others. Further, the manufacturers of PBXs (private branch exchanges—the name for corporate phone systems) used proprietary digital phone sets in order to increase the functionality and value of the PBX. These phone sets were, by design, incompatible with answering machines.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, the cost of long distance calling decreased and more business communications were conducted by telephone. As corporations grew and labor rates increased, the ratio of secretaries to employees decreased. With multiple time zones, fewer secretaries and more communication by phone, real-time phone communications were hampered by callers being unable to reach people. Some early studies showed that only 1 in 4 phone calls resulted in a completed call and half the calls were one-way in nature (that is, they did not require a conversation). This happened because people were either not at work (due to time zone differences, being away on business, etc.), or if they were at work, they were on the phone, away from their desks in meetings, on breaks, etc. This bottleneck hindered the effectiveness of business activities and decreased both individual and group productivity. It also wasted the caller's time and created delays in resolving time-critical issues.

Voicemail invention

The first public records describing voice recording were reported in a New York newspaper and the Scientific American in November, 1877. Thomas A. Edison had announced the invention of his "phonograph" saying "the object was to record telephone messages and transmit them again by telephone." Edison applied for a U. S. patent on December 1877 and shortly thereafter demonstrated the machine to publishers, the U.S. congress and President Hayes, recording and playing "Mary had a little lamb... " and "there was a little girl who had a little curl... " and other ditties popular at the time. In an article outlining his own ideas of the future usefulness of his machine Edison's list began with "Letter writing, and all kinds of dictation without the aid of a stenographer." In other words, "voice messages" or "Voice-mail". By 1914, Edison's phonograph business included a dictating machine (the Ediphone) and the "Telescribe", a machine combining the phonograph and the telephone, which recorded both sides of telephone conversations.

For nearly one hundred years, there were few innovations or advances in telephone services. Voicemail was the result of innovations in telephone products and services made possible by developments in computer technology during the 1970s. These innovations began with the Motorola Pageboy, a simple "pager" or "beeper" introduced in 1974 that was generally offered in conjunction with answering services that handled busy / no-answer overloads and after hours calls for businesses and professionals. Operators wrote down a caller's message, sent a page alert or "beep" and when the party called back, an operator dictated the message.

With the introduction of "voice" pagers, like the Motorola Pageboy II operators could transmit a voice message directly to the pager and the user could hear the message. However, messages arrival was often untimely and privacy issues as well as the high cost eventually caused the demise of these services. By the mid 1970s digital storage and analog to digital conversion devises had emerged and paging companies began handling client messages electronically. Operators recorded a short message (5–6 seconds, e.g. "please call Mr. Smith") and the messages were delivered automatically when the client called the answering service. It would only take a short step for the first voicemail application to be born.

Computer manufacturers, telephone equipment manufacturers and software firms began developing more sophisticated solutions as more powerful and less expensive computer processors and storage devices became available. This set the stage for a creation of a broad spectrum of computer based Central Office and Customer Premise Equipment that would eventually support enhanced voice solutions such as voicemail, audiotex, interactive voice response (IVR) and speech recognition solutions that began emerging in the 1980s. However, broad adoption of these products and services would depend on the global proliferation of touch tone phones and mobile phone services which would not occur until the late 1980s.

Invention of voicemail controversy

Many contributed to the creation of the modern-day voice-mail. Legal battles ensued for decades. The true first inventor of voicemail, patent number 4,124,773 (Audio Storage and Distribution System), is Elkins. "Though Elkins received a patent in 1978, telecommunications giants began offering voicemail without paying Elkins a penny in royalties." "Elkins never expected to spend 10 years of his life battling some of the world's largest corporations, either. But once he patented his system, he figured he should protect it." Later, Elkins successfully licensed his patented technology to IBM, DEC, WANG, among many others.

Pioneering applications

One of the first modern day voicemail applications was invented by Gerald M. Kolodny and Paul Hughes, which was described in an article in the medical journal, Radiology (Kolodny GM, Cohen HI, Kalisky A. Rapid-access system for radiology reports: a new concept. Radiology. 1974;111(3):717-9) A patent was applied for by Kolodny and Hughes in 1975, and was issued in 1981 (U.S. patent 4,260,854). The patent was assigned to Sudbury Systems of Sudbury Massachusetts who proceeded to market and sell such systems to corporations and hospitals. IBM, Sony and Lanier, as well as several smaller makers of voice-mail systems, licensed the Sudbury patent for their voice-mail systems. A patent suit, brought by Pitney Bowes, claiming prior art to the Sudbury patent, was denied by the U.S. District Court, District of Connecticut on November 8, 2000.

IBM Audio Distribution System

The first voice-messaging application, the Speech Filing System, was developed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center in 1973 under the leadership of Stephen Boies. It was later renamed the Audio Distribution System (ADS).

ADS used the human voice and the fixed-line touch-tone telephones that predated computer screens and mobile phones. The first operational prototypes were used by 750 IBM executives mainly in the USA for their daily work. Those prototypes ran on an IBM System/7 computer attached to an IBM VM370 for additional storage.

In 1978 the prototype was converted to run on an IBM Series/1 computer. In September 1981 IBM started marketing ADS in America and Europe: the first customer installation was completed in February 1982.

ADS, marketed by IBM and briefly by AT&T Corporation, was well featured for voice messaging, the result of IBM's considerable human-factors research plus observation of operational use. Using a 1980's computer requiring air conditioning, it was expensive and physically large. With further development it grew to handle up to 3000 users, 100 hours of messages, multiple languages, message notification to a host computer, and 16 simultaneous users.

ADS could be connected to exchange lines and private exchanges including the IBM 2750 and 3750 Switching Systems available in Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, and the UK.

IBM sold many systems. Installations included:

  • The 1984 Atlanta Olympic Games with 7 systems serving 7800 athletes and 6000 staff — and computer voice prompts in 12 languages for 55,000 messages
  • General Motors, USA with 8 ADS systems saving 30% of the costs of its long-distance calls
  • Systems across America and Europe for insurance-company staff to report their appraisals of damaged vehicles and hear the locations of their next appraisal sites
  • Esso in France and Mars in England for salesforce coordination
  • Rowntree's in York, England to liaise with the chocolate-makers' agents across time zones in Europe, North America, the Middle East, and Australia
  • Italy: 10 systems across Italy for the public to call to hear locally-relevant autostrade traffic-delay information
  • Milan, Italy: two systems for automated airport announcements, handling multiple languages.

Delta 1

Another company, Delphi Communications of California, deserves some partial credit for invention of voicemail. Under the leadership of Jay Stoffer, Delphi developed a proprietary system called Delta 1 that picked up incoming calls directly from the telephone company. Stoffer presented the Delphi concept publicly to the association of Telephone Answering Services around 1973 and the prototype system was launched in San Francisco in 1976 by a Delphi company called VoiceBank. Delphi developed Delta 1 as a purely service-oriented voice messaging system to answer subscriber telephones for businesses and professionals. Delta 1 required human intervention for message deposit. While three machines were built, only one machine was put into operational service. The completely automated voice messaging system (Delta 2) was developed for initial operational use in Los Angeles in 1981. Apparently Delta 2 was built, installed and operational for a short while, but unfortunately Delphi's major early investor, Exxon Enterprises, abruptly shut down Delphi in July, 1982. Nothing further was done with Delphi's technology. A patent was applied for and issued for Delphi's Automated Telephone Voice Service System. The patent, U.S. Patent No. 4,625,081, was issued after Delphi's closure, but Delphi's assets (and the patent) were transferred to another Exxon company, Gilbarco, which made equipment for gas pumps at filling stations. Gilbarco is now owned by GEC in the United Kingdom.


In 1979, a company was founded in Texas by Gordon Matthews called ECS Communications (the name was later changed to VMX, for Voice Message exchange). VMX developed a 3000-user voice messaging system called the VMX/64 and was the first company to offer a voice messaging system for sale commercially for corporate use. In the early 1980s, VMX sold voice messaging systems to several large corporations, such as 3M, Kodak, American Express, Intel, Hoffmann–La Roche, Corning Glass, Arco, Shell Canada and Westinghouse. The impressive list of early adopters started the ball rolling on corporate voice-mail. While VMX began with a good start, it failed at developing the market, and the company was not a commercial success. It took several years before its products could answer outside calls (and then only under certain circumstances), they were physically enormous, expensive, light on important user features and had serious reliability issues. In addition, the user interface was cumbersome, requiring the users to remember non-intuitive multi-digit Touch-tone commands. Matthews, a prolific entrepreneur and patenter, applied for and was granted a patent on voice-mail (patent number 4,371,752) which issued in February, 1983. The patent was promoted as the pioneering patent for voice-mail.

VMX asserted infringement first with IBM, AT&T and then Wang, but all three companies reportedly would have been able to invalidate the patent on the basis of prior art. VMX cleverly achieved a settlement where the patent was let stand, not challenged in court and IBM, Wang and AT&T (in separate settlements) received royalty-free licenses to all VMX patents. Wang, the last of the majors to get such a license for itself and Voice-mail International, essentially paid $20,000 and cross licensed a few patent applications (not issued patents). IBM and AT&T also cross-licensed a number of patents to VMX, most of which were obsolete or outdated. VMX could claim that several major companies licensed the patent (even though they paid almost nothing to VMX for the rights), but that part wasn't disclosed. The patent was never challenged in court and VMX then continued to assert (incorrectly) that it had invented voice-mail and that Matthews was the "father of voice-mail". Following the settlement with Wang, VMX settled with Octel Communications in exchange for a small payment and Octel's agreeing not to litigate any VMX patent, Octel received a paid-up, royalty-free license on all existing and future VMX patents.

IVR Voice Recognition

In 1985, Voice Response Inc. (formerly Call-It Co) a subsidiary of Lee Enterprises, Davenport IA, entered the fast-growing Interactive Voice (IVR) response market under the direction of Bob Ross, President. About a year later, VRI introduced one of the first "successful" IVR applications that utilized voice recognition (rather than touch tone) to capture caller responses. Voice recognition technology had great difficulty with regional and ethnic differences and nuances which resulted in a high incidence of error. VRI discovered that hesitation (delayed response) signaled caller confusion or misunderstanding which often resulted in an inaccurate response. VRI developed proprietary techniques that measured user response times and used the data to make real-time changes to the application's dialog with the caller. VRI found that the confidence level of a "suspect" caller response could be increased by asking "Did you say (Chicago), Yes or No", a standard queston heard in order taking or reservation making IVR applications today. VRI pioneering applications, including subscription fulfillment for Time -Life Magazine, proved faster and less expensive than call centers using live operators and although VRI did not survive, their voice recognition processes became industry standards and VRI's patent USPTO - patent RE34,587 was eventually licensed by Intel/Dialogic and Nuance.

International Voicemail Association

In 1987, Voice-mail service providers in the U.S. and Europe joined together to form the Voice Mail Association of Europe (VMA) with René Beusch, Radio-Suisse and Paul Finnigan, Finnigan USA serving as VMA Chairman and President respectively. The VMA invited service providers, vendors and consultants to attend semi-annual conferences that included presentations, discussions and reporting of experiences. VMA membership was eventually expanded to include representatives from telecommunication organizations worldwide and became “The International Voice-mail Association”. By the late 1980s, the Bell Operating companies, Tigon and other independent service providers in the U.S. had joined the VMA. In 1992, VMA members conducted an “Information Week Tour of the U.S.”, sharing ideas with major telecom operators. VMA working groups promoted collaboration and adoption of industry standards to the ITU and CCITT and at the 1999 CCITT conference in Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrated worldwide exchange of messages between the major voice-mail vendors’ platforms using the VPIM networking standard. Beusch and Finnigan led the VMA until 1998 and 1999 respectively and the organization continues to serve the voice services industry today.

Corporate voicemail

In the early 1980s there were over 30 companies vying for the corporate voicemail market. Among the many contenders were IBM, VMX, Wang, Octel, ROLM, AT&T, Northern Telecom, Delphi Communications, Voice and Data Systems, Opcom, Commterm, Genesis, Brook Trout, Innovative Technology (ITI), Glenayre, BBL, AVT, AVST, Digital Sound, Centigram, Voice-mail International and Active Voice. Only a few of these companies were successful in capturing a significant market share and remain in the voice-mail business today.

ROLM Corporation, founded in 1969 by Gene Richeson, Ken Oshman, Walter Loewenstern and Robert Maxfield, was the first PBX manufacturer to offer integrated voice-mail with its PhoneMail system, its registered trademark. PhoneMail offered impressive recording quality of its digitized messages. ROLM's digital PBX (called a CBX, for Computerized Branch eXchange) was the first to enable PhoneMail to illuminate a message waiting light on ROLM phones equipped with message waiting lights (also a stutter dialtone is used with analog and digital phones). Rolm was sold to IBM, who later sold it to Siemens who offer PhoneMail in various configurations/sizes (including a micro-sized version) and its unified messaging successor, Xpressions 470. ROLM was purchased by IBM in the mid 1980s (which was a financial disaster for the profitable ROLM, as IBM clearly could not grasp the laid back, "think outside the box" attitude of ROLM, which was the #2 PBX supplier in the US from the mid 70s to late 80s), then sold half interest to the German company Siemens. In 1992, Siemens bought ROLM entirely from IBM and the original ROLM product line was done for, except for PhoneMail (the only product Siemens did not destroy). VMX suffered from poor product and ineffective management and was about to fold when Opcom merged with it. The surviving company was called VMX, but VMX was all but erased by Opcom except for its name and patent portfolio.

Opcom, a company founded by David Ladd, developed a voicemail system primarily marketed to smaller enterprises. Opcom pioneered and patented the feature of automated attendant (U.S. Patent numbers 4,747,124 and 4,783,796 both issued in 1988), an integral part of any voicemail systems. The automated attendant enables callers to direct calls by pressing single digit keys, e.g. "If you are making domestic reservations, press 1; for international reservations, press ‘2'; etc." Opcom later pioneered the concept of Unified Messaging (to be discussed later in this article). Opcom eventually acquired VMX through a reverse merger, (Opcom was private and VMX was public) and the surviving company VMX was eventually acquired by Octel.

Octel Communications, founded in 1982 by Bob Cohn and Peter Olson, broadly commercialized the corporate voice messaging market. While Octel benefited from the work and experiments of others it was the first stand-alone voicemail company to build a strong business and strategy to win in this difficult market. In addition, Octel innovated substantially new technology which contributed heavily to its success including a system architecture that was physically smaller, faster, more reliable, and much less costly than other corporate vendors. Octel's voicemail system, was introduced in 1984, included unique system features, many of which were patented, which gave Octel market leadership. In 1990 Octel was one of the first companies to introduce the concept of Unified Messaging.

AT&T/Lucent created its version of voicemail in the early 1990s (called Audix) but it would only work on AT&T/Lucent PBXs. Northern Telecom|Nortel developed Meridian Mail and followed the same strategy as AT&T in that Meridian Mail only worked with Northern Telecom PBXs. As a result, neither company achieved much market share with large national or multi-national accounts. AT&T spun off its equipment business into a company called Lucent Technologies, and Northern Telecom changed its name to Nortel.

By the mid-1990s, Octel had become the number one supplier of voicemail both to corporations and to carriers. Octel had about a 60% market share in the U.S., Canada, Europe and Japan (for large corporations) and between a 30% and 100% of the carrier market, depending on the country. By 1997 Octel's biggest competitors were Audix, made by Lucent, and Meridian Mail, made by Nortel. In July 1997, Octel was purchased by Lucent Technology. Lucent's AUDIX division was merged into Octel to form the Octel Messaging Division. By 2000, some estimate that there were over 150,000,000 active users of corporate and carrier voicemail made by the Octel Messaging Division. Shortly thereafter, Lucent spun off its corporate business, including the Octel Messaging Division, into a company known as Avaya.

Boston Technology, uReach Technologies and Comverse Technology all entered the carrier market in the early 1990s. Boston was eventually acquired by Comverse, making it the second largest supplier to carriers after Octel. However, in a few years Comverse became the largest supplier to carriers with Lucent/Octel holding its leadership in the corporate market and second place with carriers. Comverse today retains its leadership of legacy voicemail systems sold to carriers around the world. For IP-based voicemail systems, Ericsson claims market leadership with its Ericsson Messaging-over-IP (MoIP) solution. uReach provides VoiceMail services for Verizon and a host of other Tier 1 and Tier 2 carriers and is the voice-mail system used by Verizon FIOS. uReach Technologies was acquired by GENBAND in 2014.

Public telephone services

In the U.S., the Bell Operating Companies and their cellular divisions had been prohibited by the FCC from offering voicemail and other enhanced services such as paging and telephone answering services (no such prohibition existed in foreign countries). A ruling by Judge Harold H. Greene on March 7, 1988 removed this barrier and allowed the BOCs to offer voice-mail service, however they were not allowed to design or manufacture equipment used to provide voice-mail services.

The opportunity created by the Greene decision, plus Voicemail International's abandonment of its market lead for carrier grade systems, created a new opportunity for competing manufacturers and those who had been focusing on the corporate market. Unisys, Boston Technology, and Comverse Technology were quick to address the BOC and PTT marketplace. Octel, who had high capacity systems in use interally by all seven Regional Bell Operating companies, launched a new generation of its large system specifically designed for carriers and was compliant with "NEBS standards," the tight standard required by phone companies for any equipment located in their central offices.

While Unisys eventually secured PacBell's residential voice-mail services, Boston Technology became the mainstay of Bell Atlantic's residential voicemail offering and Comverse Technology enjoyed some success in the European market; Octel became the provider of voice-mail platforms for virtually all of the major US wireless carriers (including the seven RBOCs, AT&T Wireless and McCaw), Canadian cellular carriers and a large percent of the GSM carriers around the world.

However it didn't take long for Comverse to become the largest supplier to the BOCs and PTTs with Lucent/Octel holding its leadership in the corporate market and second place with carriers. Boston was eventually acquired by Comverse making it the second largest supplier to carriers after Octel.

Unified messaging

Unified Messaging integrated voice-mail into Microsoft Exchange, the corporate email system made by Microsoft. Unified Messaging had been invented by Roberta Cohen, Kenneth Huber and Deborah Mill at AT&T Bell Labs. The patent for Unified Messaging was received in June, 1989 (Patent number 4,837,798).

Unified Messaging allowed users to access voicemail and email messages using either the graphical user interface (GUI) on their PC, or using the telephone user interface (TUI). Using a PC, users could see voice-mails and emails mixed together in their email inbox. Voice mails had a little telephone icon next to them and emails had a little envelope icon next to them (see figure below). For voice-mail, they'd see the "header information" (sender, date sent, size, and subject). Users could double-click a voice-mail from their email inbox and hear the message through their PC or a phone next to their desk.

Using any phone in the world, users could listen to voice messages like they normally did, plus have emails read to them (in synthesized voice). Voice messages could be sent using email or telephone addressing schemes, and the data networking infrastructure was used to send messages between locations rather than the public switched telephone network. It wasn't until the early 2000s and the availability of reliable, high capacity email servers, high speed internet connections and PCs with speakers or microphones that Unified Messaging achieved commercial success.

Virtual telephony

Other interesting markets developed from the carrier market including a concept called "virtual telephony." Virtual Telephony, developed by Octel, used voice-mail to provide phone service rapidly in emerging countries without wiring for telephones. The problem this solved was that emerging countries did not have many telephones. Wiring for telephones was very expensive, and many poorer citizens didn't have homes to wire. The economies of emerging countries were held back partly because people could not communicate beyond the area where they could walk or ride a bicycle. Giving them phones was one way to help their economies, but there was not a practical way to do it. In some countries, the wait for a phone was several years and the cost was in the thousands of dollars. Cellular phones were not an option at the time because they were extremely expensive (thousands of dollars per handset) and the infrastructure to install cell sites was also costly.

With virtual telephony, each person could be given a phone number (just the number, not the phone) and a voice mailbox. The citizen would also be given a pager. If someone called the phone number, it never rang on an actual phone, but would be routed immediately to a central voice-mail system. The voice-mail system answered the call and the caller could leave a long, detailed message. As soon as the message was received, the voice-mail system would trigger the citizen's pager. When the page was received, the citizen would find a pay phone and call in to pick up the message. This concept was used successfully in South America and South Africa.

Instant messaging in voice

By the year 2000, voicemail had become a ubiquitous feature on phone systems serving companies, cellular and residential subscribers. Cellular and residential voice-mail continue today in their previous form, primarily simple telephone answering. Email became the prevalent messaging system, email servers and software became quite reliable, and virtually all office workers were equipped with multimedia desktop PCs.

The increase in wireless mobility, originally through cellular services and today through IP-based Wi-Fi, was also a driver for messaging convergence with mobile telephony. Today it is not only fostering the use of speech user interfaces for message management, but increasing the demand for retrieval of voice messages integrated with email. It also enables people to reply to both voice and email messages in voice rather than text. New services, such as GotVoice, SpinVox and YouMail, are helping to blur the boundaries between voice-mail and text by delivering voice-mails to mobile phones as SMS text messages.

Instant messaging in voice: The next development in messaging was in making text messaging real-time, rather than just asynchronous store-and-forward delivery into a mailbox. It started with Internet service provider America Online (AOL) as a public Internet-based free text "chat" service for consumers, but soon was being used by business people as well. It introduced the concept of Internet Protocol "presence management" or being able to detect device connectivity to the Internet and contact recipient "availability" status to exchange real-time messages, as well as personalized "Buddy list" directories to allow only people you knew to find out your status and initiate a real-time text messaging exchange with you. Presence and Instant Messaging has since evolved into more than short text messages, but now can include the exchange of data files (documents, pictures) and the escalation of the contact into a voice conversational connection.

Unified messaging with VoIP

Corporate voice-mail did not change much until the advent of Voice over IP (VoIP—voice being transmitted over the internet) and the development of IP telephony applications to replace legacy PBX telephony (called TDM technologies). IP (Internet Protocol) telephony changed the style and technology of PBXs and the way voice-mail systems integrated with them. This, in turn, facilitated a new generation of Unified Messaging, which is now likely to catch on widely. The flexibility, manageability, lower costs, reliability, speed, and user convenience for messaging convergence is now possible where it wasn't before. This might include intra- and inter-enterprise contacts, mobile contacts, proactive application information delivery, and customer contact applications.

The corporate IP telephony-based voice-mail CPEmarket is served by several vendors including Avaya, Cisco systems, Adomo, Interactive Intelligence, Nortel, Mitel, 3Com, and AVST. Their marketing strategy will have to address the need to support a variety of legacy PBXs as well as new Voice over IP as enterprises migrate towards converging IP-based telecommunications. A similar situation exists for the carrier market for voice-mail servers, currently dominated by Comverse Technology, with some share still held by Lucent Technologies.

VoIP telephony enables centralized, shared servers, with remote administration and usage management for corporate (enterprise) customers. In the past, carriers lost this business because it was far too expensive and inflexible to have remote managed facilities by the phone company. With VoIP, remote administration is far more economical. This technology has re-opened opportunities for carriers to offer hosted, shared services for all forms of converged IP telecommunications, including IP-PBX and voice-mail services. Because of the convergence of wired and wireless communications, such services may also include support of a variety of multi-modal handheld and desktop end user devices. This service, when offered for multiple extensions or phone numbers is sometimes also called Unified Voice-mail.

Voicemail benefits

Voice mail's introduction enabled people to leave lengthy, secure and detailed messages in natural voice, working hand-in-hand with corporate phone systems. The adoption of voice-mail in corporations improved the flow of communications and saved huge amounts of money. GE, one of the pioneer adopters of voice-mail in all of its offices around the world, claimed that voice-mail saved, on average, over US$1,100 per year per employee. Needless to say, the ability to tell someone something without talking to them, can be a powerful reason to choose Voice-mail for delivery of a particular message.

Voicemail has two main modes of operation: telephone answering and voice messaging. Telephone answering mode answers outside calls and takes a message from any outside caller (either because the extension was busy or rang no-answer). Voice messaging enables any subscriber (someone with a mailbox number) to send messages directly to any or many subscribers' mailboxes without first calling them. Both of these modes are described below.

How voicemail works

This section describes how the original style, standalone, voicemail system worked with a corporate PBX. The principle is the same with Central Office Switches (CO Switches) or Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSOs). More modern voice-mail systems work on the same principle, but some of the components may be shared with other systems, such as email systems.

Voicemail systems contain several elements shown in the figure below:

  • A central processor (CPU) which runs the operating system and a program (software) that gives the system the look-and-feel of a voicemail system. This software includes thousands of pre-recorded prompts that "speak" to the users as they interact with the system;
  • Disk controller and multiple disk drives for message storage;
  • System disks which not only include the software above, but also contain a complete directory of all users with pertinent data about each (name, extension number, voice-mail preferences, and pointers to each of the messages stored on the message disk that belong to them);
  • Telephone interface system that enables many phone lines to be connected to it.

The drawing below shows how the voicemail system interacts with the PBX. Suppose an outside caller is calling Fred's extension 2345. The incoming call comes in from the public network (A) and comes into the PBX. The call is routed to Fred's extension (B), but Fred doesn't answer. After a certain number of rings, the PBX stops ringing Fred's extension and forwards the call to an extension connected to the voicemail system (C). It does this because PBXs are generally programmed to forward busy or unanswered calls to another extension. Simultaneously the PBX tells the voicemail system (through signaling link D) that the call it is forwarding to voice-mail is for Fred at extension 2345. In this way, the voicemail system can answer the call with Fred's greeting.

There are many microprocessors throughout the system since the system must handle large amounts of data and it is unacceptable to have any wait times (for example, when the system is recording or playing your message, it's unacceptable if the system stops recording momentarily like computers often do while accessing large files).

When Fred's extension forwards to the voicemail system, the Telephone Interface detects ringing. It signals to the Central Processor (CPU) that a call is coming in. The CPU simultaneously receives a signal on the PBX-Voicemail Data Link (D) telling it that extension 2345 is being forwarded on ring-no-answer to the specific extension that is now ringing. The CPU directs the Telephone Interface (which controls the line interface cards) to answer the call. The CPU's program realizes that it's a call for Fred so it looks up Fred's greeting immediately and directs the Disk Controller to start playing it to the caller. It also plays some system prompts instructing the caller what comes next (for example, "When you have finished recording, you may hang up or press ‘#' for more options"). All "talking" to the caller is done through prompts that are selected by the CPU according to the program stored in the voicemail system. The CPU selects the prompts in response to the keys the caller presses.

The caller's message is digitized by the Telephone Interface system and transmitted to the Disk Controller for storage onto the Message Disks. Some voicemail systems will scramble the message for further security. The CPU then stores the location of that message in the System Disk inside Fred's mailbox directory entry. After the caller hangs up and the message has been stored, the CPU sends a signal to the PBX through the link (D) instructing the PBX to turn on the message waiting light on Fred's phone.

When Fred comes back to his desk and sees the light on his phone, he calls a designated extension number for the voicemail system (an actual extension number assigned to the lines in "C" in the figure above).

Again the Telephone Interface alerts the CPU that a call is coming in on a particular line, but this time the signaling from the PBX-Voicemail Data Link (D) indicates that Fred is calling directly, not being forwarded. The CPU directs the Telephone Interface to answer the call.

Since the CPU "knows" it is Fred (from the signaling on the Data Link D), it looks up Fred's information on the System Disk, specifically his password. The CPU then directs Disk Controller to play a log-on prompt to the user: "Please enter your password." Once the password is entered (via Touch-tones), the CPU compares it to the correct one and, if entered correctly, allows Fred to continue.

The CPU then determines (from Fred's directory entry) that Fred has a new message. The CPU then presents Fred his options (e.g., "You have a new message. To listen to your new message, press 1; to record a message, press 2" etc.) The options are presented by the CPU directing the Disk Controller to play prompts, and the CPU listens for Touch-tones from Fred. This interaction of playing prompts and responding with Touch-tones enables Fred to interact with the voicemail system easily.

If Fred presses 1 to listen to his message, the CPU looks up the location of Fred's new message in his mailbox directory (on the System Disk), and directs the Disk Controller to play that message. The Disk Controller finds the message on the Message Disks, and sends the data stream directly to the Telephone Interface. The Telephone Interface then converts the data stream to sound and plays it to Fred through the Line Interface Card which Fred is connected to.

Playback controls (like rewind, pause, fast forward, changing volume, etc.) are all input via Touch-tones, are "read" by the CPU, and the appropriate actions are taken based on the stored program in the system. For example, if Fred wants to pause message playback, he might press 2. Since the CPU is constantly listening for Touch-tones from Fred, his command causes the CPU to direct the Disk Controller to stop playing the message. A variety of playback controls and options are available on most sophisticated voice-mail systems so that users can control message playback, store messages in archives, send messages to groups, change their preferences, etc.

The better designed voicemail systems have a user-friendly interface with clear and meaningful prompts so the interaction with the voicemail system is quick and easy.

See also

  • Vertical service code
  • Visual voicemail


Further reading

  • "A Reactive Telephone Message Network for the Office of the Future", Business Communications Review, July-Aug 1980; "Voice Mail Arrives in the Office", Business Week, June 9, 1980, p. 81.
  • "The Case for Voice Mail: Confirmed." GE Corporate Telecommunications publication, May, 1989, Constance C. Kelly, editor.
  • "IBM Audio Distribution System", IBM publication GX60-0075-0
  • "Toward Competitive Provision of Public Record Message Services", Experimental Technology Incentives Program, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC. Publication NBX-GCR-ETIP-81-97 October, 1991.
  • "Speech Filing System Reference Manual", 1975, by J. W. Schoonard and S. J. Boies, IBM Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, 10598.
  • "How to Shoulder Aside the Titans", Gene Bylinsky, Fortune, May 18, 1992; "Octel Keeps Bringing You Voice Mail", Global Telecoms Business (UK), February/March 1996, pp. 22–24
  • "Human Factors Challenges In Creating A Principal Support Office System: The Speech Filing System Approach", by John D. Gould and Stephen J. Boies, IBM Tomas J. Watson Research Center, as quoted in a paper presented to the Association for Computer Machinery. See ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 1983, pp. 273–298.
  • "Speech Filing: An Office System For Principals", by J.D. Gould and S.J. Boies, IBM Systems Journal, Volume 23, Number 1, 1984, p. 65.
  • "IBM Audio Distribution System Subscriber's Guide" and "IBM Audio Distribution System, Administrator's Guide". IBM Publications SC34-0400-3 and SC34-0400-1
  • Correspondence with Jay Stoffer, March 26, 2006: "… As to Gordon Matthews, I was introduced to him by a Venture Capitalist that later invested in Delphi. I met with Gordon and his wife at their home in Dallas with the objective of ascertaining if he could contribute to our product planning process. I concluded that he would not be likely to add value in that activity but that my colleagues should evaluate his potential contribution to Engineering. To that end, we flew Gordon back to LA where he was interviewed by members of our technical team. It was at this time (1973/1974) that he would have seen a demonstration of the voice application. He had definitely been thinking about a voice-mail system prior to this visit but he had definitely not established his company or raised the capital to do so. Furthermore, his product plan was still very much in the formative stage and never reached the sophistication of the Delphi offering." Needless to say, there was no employment offer made to Matthews by Delphi.
  • Transcriptions of various seminars sponsored by Probe Research, Inc., September, 1982:
    • "Voice Message Service," Proceedings of Voice Processing Seminar, September 15, 1982;
    • "BBL Industries, Inc.," Proceedings of Voice Processing Seminar, September 15, 1982;
    • "Wang Laboratories," Proceedings of Voice Processing Seminar, September 16, 1982;
    • "American Telephone and Telegraph, Inc.," Proceedings of Voice Processing Seminar, September 16, 1982;
    • "Commterm, Inc.," Proceedings of Voice Processing Seminar, Sep. 16, 1982.
  • "Voice Store and Forward for the Automated Office", a presentation by Lawrence E. Bergeron, Dennis B. Howell and Dean Osborne, Wang Laboratories, Inc., Lowell, Mass., transcribed in "Computer Controlled Voice Message Systems and the Office of the Future", Professional Program Session Record (10), Wescon/81, Electronic Show and Convention, September 15–17 September 1981, section 2, pp. 1–8.
  • "The PhoneMail System for the ROLM CBX", publication by ROLM Corporation.
  • "Octel Emerges as Rising Star in Voice Messaging Systems", Peninsula Times Tribune, November 7, 1988, page C-1; "Investors Waking Up to Octel's Leadership", Investor's Daily, February 17, 1989; "Octel's Stock Gamble Has Paid Off", USA Today, Friday, February 24, 1989, page 3B.
  • "Octel Communications Corporation", filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission for its prospectus for secondary public offering, August 15, 1989; Various internal manuals and publications from Octel Communications Corporation.
  • "All Your Messages in One Place", Michael H. Martin, Fortune, May 12, 1997, p. 172.
  • "Toward Competitive Provision of Public Record Message Services", ETIP (Experimental Technology Incentives Program), National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., October, 1981; "domestic Public Message Services", FCC publication 71FCC 2d 471; "Telecommunications Competition and Deregulation Act of 1981" (FCC Computer Inquiry II), Docket 20828, December 30, 1980; "Denial of AT&T Petition for Waiver of Section 64.702 of the Commission Rules and Regulations", October 7, 1981, Federal Communications Reports 88FCC 2d.
  • United States of America (Plaintiff) v. Western Electric Company, Inc., et al. (Defendants). Civil action no. 82-0192, Section VII pp. 51–65: "The judge on review considers the threat to possible competition in the voice-mail and storage business to be less real than the opportunities lost to the public welfare by these services not being broadly available. Hence, the BOCs should be able to provide voice-mail."
  • AT&T Wireless ultimately bought McCaw Cellular. The combined company was eventually bought by Cingular.
  • GSM (Global System for Mobile Carriers) is one of the various cellular technologies which include TDMA, CDMA, iDEN and others. GSM is currently the technology used by Cingular in the US and is the prevalent technology in over 100 countries around the world.
  • Investor's Business Daily, February 1, 1996. "Octel's Robert Cohn: CEO of Voice-Messaging Firm Puts Premium on Speed", by Kathleen Doler.
  • "Lucent Is Set To Buy Leader In Voice Mail", Seth Schiesel, New York Times, July 18, 1997, Page C1.

Voicemail – Voice Mail Systems For Small Business


The Daniels College of Business is one of twelve graduate programs at the University of Denver. Founded in 1908, the Daniels College of Business is the eighth oldest business school in the United States. Daniels is a top-ranked American business school and currently enrolls approximately 2,293 students, divided between graduate, undergraduate programs, and dual undergraduate/graduate programs.


Executive MBA Video Contest GOLD Winner - The Executive MBA program at the Daniels College of Business, University of Denver.

Daniels is the eighth oldest collegiate business school in the country, and has been continuously accredited by AACSB International since 1923. It was established in 1908 as the School of Commerce, Accounts and Finance at the University of Denver, the oldest private university in the Rocky Mountain Region, founded in 1864. Its name was changed to the College of Business Administration in 1946 and then again in 1994 to the Daniels College of Business.

Classes were first held in downtown Denver in the Haish Building and, after moving several times, the Daniels College of Business Building opened in 1999. In 1989, Bill Daniels, a Denver cable television pioneer, presented the University of Denver with a challenge grant to update the graduate business curriculum. The redesigned program combined traditional disciplines such as finance, management and marketing with the development of ethics and value-based leadership.

Daniels building

The $22 million Daniels College of Business building was opened in 1999. The building houses breakout team study rooms and a commons area for informal student and faculty gatherings. It is also an “unwired” building, with wireless Internet and over 3,400 data and voice ports, an electronic business research center and a state-of-the-art IT laboratory.

Academic programs

  • B.S. Business Administration
  • MBA, full and part-time
  • Executive MBA
  • Professional MBA
  • Master of Accountancy
  • Master of Taxation
  • M.S. Management
  • M.S. Business Analytics
  • M.S. Finance
  • M.S. Marketing
  • M.S. Real Estate and Construction Management

The school also offers Executive and Professional certificates and programs, dual Masters Degrees, and Undergraduate and Graduate Dual Degrees


  • Among the approximately 643 business schools accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), Daniels is in the top 15% of undergraduate programs and the top 5% of graduate programs.
  • Daniels was ranked #5 regionally and 25th nationally in 2011 by Business Week for its part-time MBA programs. Its undergraduate business program was ranked 57th in the county and #1 in Colorado.
  • Daniels College of Business has been recognized by The Wall Street Journal in various general and specific categories, including no. 20 Overall among North American regional schools in 2007
  • #72 among Best Undergraduate Business Programs by U.S. News and World Report
  • In 2011, Daniels ranked #2 in the world for small MBA programs, and #15 for integrating social and environmental issues into its MBA program in Beyond Grey Pinstripes, an alternative ranking of business schools by The Aspen Institute.
  • The Financial Times ranked Daniels #35 in the United States, among Executive MBA programs for 2011.

Notable alumni

  • Shahzada Jamal Nazir, former Federal Minister for the ministries of National Health Services, Religious Affairs, National Heritage & Integration and National Harmony, Government of Pakistan (largest portfolio in interim 2013 cabinet); and also former Adviser/Minister of State for the Government of Pakistan under Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani.
  • Pete V. Domenici - US Senator for New Mexico
  • Byron Dorgan - US Senator for North Dakota
  • Michael Enzi - US Senator for Wyoming
  • Mark Gasta - CHRO and SVP, Vail Resorts
  • Ted Kleisner - President/CEO, Hershey Entertainment & Resorts Company
  • Jim Lentz - President, Toyota USA
  • Scott Mitchell Rosenberg - CEO/Chairman Platinum Studios; Founder, Malibu Comics
  • Joe Saunders - Chairman and CEO, VISA
  • Robert Swieringa - Anne and Elmer Lindseth Dean Emeritus and Professor of Accounting, Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University
  • Andrew (Andy) C. Taylor—Chairman and CEO, Enterprise Rent-A-Car
  • Pam Turbeville - President & CEO Navistar Chicago
  • Peter H. Coors- Chairman of the Board, Molson Coors Brewing Company
  • James C. Kennedy- Chairman, Cox Enterprises, Inc.


External links

  • Official website

Daniels College Of Business – Executive Mba Denver


The Wisconsin School of Business is the business school of University of Wisconsin–Madison, located in Grainger Hall. Founded in 1900, it has more than 35,000 alumni. The undergraduate program prepares students for business careers, while its Master of Business Administration (MBA) program is based on focused career specializations. The school offers many student services, such as Undergraduate Advising Services, The Business Career Center, and International Programs.

Wisconsin naming gift

Placement with the Top-Rated Wisconsin MBA - http:/ See why more than 90% of Wisconsin MBA graduates have strong job offers in their chosen fields within three months of graduation.

In 2005 the Wisconsin School of Business Dean Michael Knetter began approaching alumni with the idea for the naming grant. He asked them to donate $5 million each in the interest of maintaining the school's name as the Wisconsin School of Business for the next 20 years. On October 27, 2007 the Wisconsin School of Business announced the receipt of an $85 million naming gift. A group of 13 alumni known as the "Wisconsin Naming Partnership" donated a minimum of $5 million each. Usually a school changes its name after receiving a large donation from a single donor or a small group. The agreement made with the Wisconsin Naming Partnership was that the business school would keep its name for the next 20 years, after which the school could change its name if it received another sufficient donation.


In the 2011 U.S. News & World Report rankings, the Wisconsin School of Business's undergraduate program was ranked 13th overall among business schools, 7th among public institutions, and third among Big Ten business schools. Both the real estate and risk management programs retained their previous rankings as second and fourth in the nation, respectively. The school's marketing program was ranked ninth, with quantitative analysis, finance, accounting, and management programs all ranking in the top 20 nationally. The school's MBA program was ranked 29th. The Financial Times ranked Wisconsin's Executive Education programs 14th in the U.S. and 28th in the world. Business Week ranked the Wisconsin MBA 4th fastest in the U.S. for the return on investment. In 2009, Business Week ranked the Wisconsin MBA finance specializations 26th in the nation. "Aspen Institute" created a list of the top 100 business schools for environmental, social, and ethical management education called the Beyond Grey Pinstripes list, in which The Wisconsin MBA was ranked 17th worldwide and 15th in the U.S.

The University of Wisconsin–Madison as a whole was ranked 35th in the U.S., seventh among public universities, and third among Big Ten schools. The rankings are based solely on the judgments of deans and senior faculty who responded to an invitation to nominate peer institutions on a scale of 1 (marginal) to 5 (distinguished). A total of 38 percent of those surveyed responded. Specialty areas were ranked based on the number of nominations received from respondents.


The School of Business has traditionally been a junior-senior program. However, beginning in the fall semester of 2009, sophomores were also accepted into the program. The program is small, with approximately 1,300 students. The number of students the School of Business admits each semester varies with each admission period and is proportional to the number of students who graduated in the previous semester. The Fall 2010 semester had admission rates of 66.8% for students applying under the new Sophomore admission standards and 49.2% for students applying under the old Junior admission standards.

The integrated master's of accountancy program (IMacc) has traditionally an admission rate of 90%. Application process does not involve GMAT test scores, which only needs to be submitted for formality after a student is offered admission.

The full-time Wisconsin MBA is designed around career specializations, instead of general academic majors, and many of the specializations are linked to a Center of Expertise. Applicants to the program apply for admission to these specializations in order to be admitted to the Wisconsin School of Business.

Student Life

In 2011, a new tradition was launched by the BBA Student Government Students, faculty, and staff were encouraged to wear their "I am Wisconsin School of Business" shirts on the first of every month. The tradition has since been modified to wear T-shirts the first Tuesday of every month to ensure T-shirt days happen when students are on campus during the week.

Non-Degree Programs

The UW-Madison Executive Education program offers over 70 open enrollment courses in a variety of business and financial topics. In 2009, Executive Education introduced the Professional Development Certificate and the Master Practitioner designation.

Notable Wisconsin School of Business alumni

  • Steve Bennett, CEO, Symantec, BBA'76
  • Paul Collins, Retired Vice Chairman, Citigroup
  • Curt Culver, CEO, MGIC
  • Jeff Diermeier, President & CEO, CFA Institute, MBA'75 (Applied Security Analysis Program)
  • Tom Falk, CEO, Kimberly-Clark
  • Dave Lesar, CEO, Halliburton
  • John Morgridge, Chairman Emeritus, Cisco Systems
  • Albert Nicholas, Chairman & CEO, Nicholas Company Inc.
  • Arthur Nielsen Jr., Chairman Emeritus, ACNielsen
  • Tadashi Okamura, Chairman, Toshiba Corporation
  • John Oros], Executive Chairman, JC Flowers & Co
  • Paul F. Reilly, Judge of the Wisconsin Court of Appeals
  • Bill Nygren, Portfolio Manager of The Oakmark Fund, MS'75 (Applied Security Analysis Program)


Wisconsin's Twist on the Name Game

External links

  • Official Wisconsin School of Business Website
  • Official Executive Education Website
  • Official Wisconsin MBA Website
  • Official Wisconsin BBA Website
  • Official Wisconsin PhD Website

Wisconsin School Of Business – Online Mba Wisconsin


Comerica, Inc. is an American financial services company founded in Detroit, Michigan and currently headquartered in Dallas, Texas. In addition to Michigan and Texas, it has retail-banking operations in Arizona, California, and Florida, and select business operations in several other U.S. states, as well as in Canada and Mexico.

It is the 22nd largest U.S. financial holding company, with $69.3 billion in total assets, $48.2 billion in total loans, and $57 billion in total deposits as of March 31, 2015. It is the largest U.S. commercial bank headquartered in Texas. The company's operating units include the Business Bank, the Retail Bank, and Wealth Management.

Employing nearly 9,000 people, its major operations are located in Detroit, Livonia, Auburn Hills, Michigan and Dallas. Ralph Babb is the Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer; Karen Parkhill is the Chief Financial Officer.

History - Comerica Bank - Black Wall Street District in Oakland, Comerica BankRon Barrett executive vice president with Comerica Bank Michael Wallis of ...

The company was founded in Detroit by Elon Farnsworth in 1849 as the Detroit Savings Fund Institute. Its name changed to The Detroit Savings Bank in 1871 and to The Detroit Bank in 1936, being one of the few area banks to survive the Great Depression. In 1956, the company merged with Birmingham National Bank, Ferndale National Bank and Detroit Wabeek Bank and Trust Company to form The Detroit Bank & Trust Company. In 1971, it formed a holding company, DetroitBank Corporation. The current name was adopted in 1982.

In 1982, the company entered the Florida market. In 1983, it acquired its hometown rival, Bank of the Commonwealth. It entered the Texas market in 1988 when it acquired Grand Bancshares. The California market was added in 1991 when Plaza Commerce Bancorp and InBancshares were acquired.

In 1992, it merged with another large Detroit-based bank, Manufacturers National Corporation. Both banks were approximately the same size in assets ($14.3 billion and $12.5 billion, respectively) and employees (7,000 and 6,000). The headquarters of the merged bank was relocated to the newly constructed Comerica Tower at Detroit Center in downtown Detroit in 1993.

In 1996, the company sold its Illinois operation, which was acquired through its merger with Manufacturers, to LaSalle Bank. In 2000, it sold its credit card division to MBNA. In 2001, it acquired Imperial Bank of California, which also had branches in Arizona.

In 1998, the company purchased the naming rights to the baseball stadium in downtown Detroit, home to the Detroit Tigers of Major League Baseball. It is to pay $66 million over a period of thirty years for the naming rights to Comerica Park.

In October, 2002, Comerica Inc. announced to restate its second-quarter earnings to account for a $213 million charge, to cover climbing loan losses and a decline in the value of its Munder Capital Management unit.

On March 6, 2007, the company announced its decision to relocate its corporate headquarters to Dallas in order to move closer to its customer base in the Sun Belt. In August the company announced that it selected 1717 Main Street in Downtown Dallas. The company executives began moving into 1717 Main Street in November 2007. The building has since been renamed Comerica Bank Tower.

In January 2008, the company was selected by the U.S. Department of the Treasury as the financial agent for its Direct Express debit-card program.

On January 18, 2011, it announced the acquisition of Houston-based Sterling Bank (Texas) for $1.03 billion, strengthening Comerica's presence in the Lone Star State. The acquisition virtually tripled its market share in Houston, provided it entry into the San Antonio and Kerrville regions, and complemented its banking center network in Dallas/Fort Worth.

In August 2011, the company consolidated its Detroit operations into the 411 Building, vacating One Detroit Center. The 411 Building is the former headquarters of Manufacturers Bank.

In 2014, Comerica provided more than $8.5 million to not-for-profit organizations in its markets. Its employees raised more than $2.2 million for the United Way and Black United Fund, and donated their personal time with more than 73,000 hours spent helping to make a positive difference in the communities it serves.

Partnership with MasterCard

Comerica Bank, MasterCard, and the U.S. Treasury Department teamed up in 2008 to create the Direct Express Debit MasterCard prepaid debit card. The federal government uses the Express Debit product to issue electronic payments to people who do not have bank accounts, who are often referred to collectively as the “unbanked”. Comerica Bank is the issuing bank for the debit card.

See also

  • Comerica Bank Building (San Diego, California)
  • Comerica Bank Challenger (tennis tournament)
  • Comerica Bank New Year's Parade (Dallas, Texas)
  • List of banks in the Americas
  • List of companies in Dallas
  • List of Michigan companies


External links

  • - the company's official website
  • [2] - Comerica's online newsroom
  • [3] - Comerica's senior leadership team with bios

Comerica – Comerica Business Credit Card


General Communication Inc. (GCI) is a telecommunications corporation operating in Alaska. Through its own facilities and agreements with other providers, GCI provides cable television service, Internet access, and Wireline (networking) and cellular telephone service.


Company Profile: Gannett Co. (NYSE:GCI) - The company is the top newspaper publisher in the US with about 85 daily papers boasting a total circulation of about 5.7 million. Its flagship USA TODAY, with a ...

GCI was first founded in 1979 by Ron Duncan and Bob Walp. On November 10, 2005, the company reported third-quarter profits of $2.3 million, down from $9.3 million during the same three months of 2004.



Based in Anchorage, GCI provides cable television service to approximately three-quarters of Alaska residents. [1] GCI has upgraded most of its network to support digital cable broadcasts and provides high-definition broadcasts in some of the state's larger cities. [2] GCI leases an array of analog and digital cable boxes, including HD and DVR digital cable boxes, to its customers. In 2008, GCI discontinued analog cable service to Anchorage residences, moving to a fully digital platform.

GCI also provides content to the state-operated Alaska Rural Communications Service satellite system, which in turn provides free over-the-air broadcasts of commercial and public television programs to 235 rural Alaskan communities. [3]

On November 9, 2012, GCI announced plans to purchase KTVA, a CBS-affiliated television station in Anchorage, along with KATH-LD and KSCT-LP, the NBC-affiliated stations in Southeast Alaska. On December 9, 2013, GCI filed to acquire the CBS affiliates in Southeast Alaska—KXLJ-LD in Juneau, KTNL-TV in Sitka, and KUBD in Ketchikan.


GCI provides access to the Internet via multiple means, however, they charge for over usage. As of January 2015, GCI provides cable modem services in major cities in Alaska with download speeds up to 250 megabits per second or Mbps(re:D Plan). In mid 2015 GCI will be deploying its fiber re:D network in the Anchorage area first, with download speeds up to 1 gigabit per second(1,000Mbps). To start that campaign, GCI has increased its highest home internet plan (re:D) from 50MMbps to 100Mbps and then to 250Mbps for free in all available areas that has access to the re:D plan. The re:D plan is currently to this date $174.99 and when the re:D 1Gbps Fiber network launches, the price will remain the same. In the rural cities of Nome, Cordova, Bethel, and Barrow, GCI provides high-speed cable modem services but uses a satellite for the backhaul connection, as the cost to lay cable to these remote areas is prohibitively expensive. [4] In some rural communities where GCI does not have a cable TV infrastructure, it provides lower-bandwidth (56-512 kbit/s) wireless Internet access over a satellite backhaul. [5]

Through its own facilities and agreements with other providers, primarily Alaska Communications Systems, GCI provides data network and Internet connections via GPON DSL, PRI leased lines (such as a T1), and other high-bandwidth business-class products. These services are aimed at the business market. [6] The state government is a major customer of GCI, using GCI's infrastructure to provide the backbone for the state's wide area network.

GCI maintains local access numbers throughout the state for analog dial-up service. GCI however no longer offers dial up service to customer accounts, but will continue to support customers who are grandfathered into the service.

GCI also owns Alaska United fiber optic cable system, which connects Anchorage and Fairbanks with Internet points of presence in Seattle and Portland. [7] GCI leases capacity on their system to other Internet providers in Alaska, including Clearwire wireless broadband.

Wireline Telephone

GCI offers local telephone service in many Alaskan markets as well as intrastate and interstate long-distance. As the competitive local exchange carrier, GCI primarily contracts with the incumbent local exchange carrier, Alaska Communications Systems, to provide the local loop from GCI's switches to customers. (This practice is known as UNE-loop.)

GCI is currently deploying digital cable telephony based on PacketCable technology in Barrow as a replacement for the analog copper. In GCI's implementation, the connection between the GCI head end and the subscriber's EMTA uses IP packets but is interconnected with GCI's more traditional circuit-switched infrastructure and backbone.

GCI also provides legacy as well as Cisco VoIP telephony for many customers, including the state government.

Wireless Telephone

Through an agreement with Dobson Communications Systems, which provided TDMA and GSM cellular service under the Cellular One brand, GCI formerly sold GSM cellular service under its own name while providing Dobson with the back-end network infrastructure. AT&T's purchase of Dobson, however, resulted in an agreement on December 3, 2007 that released Dobson, now under the AT&T Wireless brand, from its contract to use GCI for its back-end network on July 1, 2008; AT&T Wireless now uses existing AT&T Alascom networks. GCI will continue to contract with AT&T Wireless for the use and resale of its products and services through June 30, 2012 but will also invest $100 million in its own network. It also plans to spend approximately $10 million to complete its acquisition of the remaining 20% of Alaska DigiTel, a competing CDMA-based cellular carrier. On December 4, 2014, GCI agreed to purchase the wireless assets of Alaska Communications for $300 million. The deal is expected to close in the first quarter of 2015.

See also

  • Other cable based services
  • 2010 Alaska Turbo Otter crash


  1. ^ Gates, Nancy. The Alaska Almanac: Facts About Alaska. p. 210. 
  2. ^ "General Communication Inc. reports $ 2.3 million quarterly profits". 
  3. ^ "GCI to purchase NBC for Southeast Alaska KATH-TV and KSCT-TV". Retrieved Nov 9, 2012. 
  5. ^ "APPLICATION FOR CONSENT TO ASSIGNMENT OF BROADCAST STATION CONSTRUCTION PERMIT OR LICENSE". CDBS Public Access. Federal Communications Commission. December 9, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2013. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ Balancing Responsibilities and Rights: A Regulatory Model for Facilities-Based VoIP Competition, National Cable and Telecommunications Association, February 2004. Accessed via
  8. ^ Anchorage Daily News: GCI will pump $100 million into its network. Published January 12, 2008.
  9. ^ "GCI To Purchase Wireless Subscriber Base From Alaska Communications". 2014-12-04. Retrieved 2014-12-05. 

External links

  • General Communication, Inc.
  • GCI SchoolAccess
  • GCI ConnectMD

GCI (company) – Gci Business Internet