A professional conference organiser, professional congress organiser (PCO) or simply conference company is a company which specialises in the organisation and management of congresses, conferences, seminars and similar events.

Role of PCOs

Convention Management - Doug Levinson - Business Education Spotlight with Alice Li "Convention Management" with Doug Levinson, Chair, Board of Convention Data Services Doug Levinson, Chair of ...

PCOs can typically work as consultants for academic and professional associations. They usually provide full service management for conferences including but not limited to conference design, abstract management software,program development, registration, site and venue selection and booking, audiovisuals, IT support, logistics, leisure management, marketing, printing and web services, sourcing speakers, funding, sponsorship and exhibitor sales, financial management and budget control.

Other companies offer related services including travel agents and public relations companies. They tend to focus on limited areas such as destination management.

Size of market sector

Recent surveys of UK conference venues have found that a third of conference bookings were made by PCOs or venue-finding agencies. In 2006 UK-based conferences generated £7.6 billion in direct sales giving PCOs a central role in some £2.5 billion of revenue generation. The UK is ranked second behind the US for global market share of conferences. Thus, although there is no one source of global statistics for the conference market it appears that PCOs play a central role in several billion dollars' worth of revenue generation worldwide.

See also

  • Meeting and convention planner
  • Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions
  • Event planning


External links

  • IAPCO – the International Association of PCOs
  • Association of British Professional Conference Organisers (ABPCO)
  • International Congress & Convention Association
  • Meeting Professionals International (white papers about the meetings industry)
  • - Professional Convention Management Association (PCMA)

Professional Conference Organiser – Convention Management Software


The Rosen College of Hospitality Management is an academic college of the University of Central Florida located in Orlando, Florida, USA. The dean of the college is Abraham Pizam, Ph.D.

The college is renowned as one of the finest schools of hospitality in the United States. Rosen College is also one of the fastest growing academic programs at UCF.


UCF Rosen College of Hospitality Management - See how the Convention Center district is the ideal location for the Rosen College of Hospitality Management. With 125000 hotels and 4000 restaurants, ...

UCF offered its first program in Hospitality Management in 1983. The program became a full-fledged college in 2004 when Harris Rosen, owner of Orlando-based Rosen Hotels & Resorts, donated 20-acre (0.081 km2) adjacent to his Rosen Shingle Creek Resort and $25 million to start the College.

Academic programs

The Rosen College of Hospitality Management offers three undergraduate degrees and two graduate degrees.

Undergraduate degrees

All three Rosen College undergraduate programs confer the Bachelor of Science (BS) degree upon successful graduation.

  • Hospitality Management (with two specialized tracks available: Theme Park and Attraction Management and Golf and Club Management)
  • Restaurant and Foodservice Management
  • Event Management

Graduate degrees

The graduate program includes a Master of Science degree in Hospitality and Tourism Management and PhD's in Hospitality Education and Hospitality Management.

In addition, a graduate Certificate in Hospitality Management is offered for international students with bachelor's degrees in either hospitality or business. The program lasts six months and consists of 12 graduate credit hours, of which nine are earned from course work and the remaining three from an internship at Walt Disney World Resort.


Orlando is one of the world's premier tourist destinations: over 62 million tourists visited the area in 2014. The Greater Orlando area has over 120,000 rooms and 4,000 restaurants, with no less than 75 theme parks and attractions, including Walt Disney World Resort, the world's largest and most-visited attraction.

The Rosen College campus is designed to imitate a resort-style feel with elegant Spanish-inspired architecture and landscaping, various areas of the college are dedicated in name to major donors to the college including the Disney Dining Room, Universal Orlando Library, Darden Auditorium, and the state-of-the-art Anheuser Busch Beer & Wine Lab. The campus includes the Three Pillars Cafe, a student-operated cafe that serves various cuisines and food items. The College is located near the Orange County Convention Center.

Regular Shuttle service is offered Monday through Thursday to and from the UCF Main Campus. The college has seen record high enrollment for the 2008 and 2009 school year.

Student life

The college features an on-site Campus Life Office that coordinates on-campus activities and events in conjunction with the UCF Student Government Association. The college offers a variety of student organizations including nationally renowned associations such as Eta Sigma Delta (International Hospitality Management Honor Society), National Society of Minorities in Hospitality, and the Professional Convention Management Association, and the National Association of Catering Executives. The college is also home to the only chapter of the Future Theme Park Leaders Association. The Career Services Office also offers career development events including the popular annual Career Expo with historically high attendance from world-renowned companies and organizations.


In 2005 the University opened two on-campus housing buildings, able to hold 400 residents and 8 resident assistants (one per floor). The student apartment community includes an outdoor pool, community center, outdoor grill area, and key-card only access into the building. The campus is under the law enforcement jurisdiction of the UCF Police Department which provides 24 hour security for the campus including the apartment community.


External links

  • University of Central Florida
  • [1]
  • UCF Rosen College of Hospitality Management

Rosen College Of Hospitality Management – Hospitality Management College


The Graduate School of Political Management (GSPM) at the George Washington University is a school of political management and applied politics, strategic communications and civic engagement. It is the nation's first school of professional politics and prepares individuals for careers as campaign managers, pollsters, speechwriters, communications professionals, legislative aides and directors, candidates, lobbyists, and new media experts. The school connects students and professionals to the tools, principles and values of participatory democracy, providing practical and relevant education and preparing them for careers as ethical and effective advocates and leaders at the international, national and local levels.

As the only school of applied politics in the nation's capital, GSPM's focus is on people with a passion for politics—those who want to make a difference, and a career, in the political realm. Since its inception, GSPM has been focused on the mission of affecting positive change in politics through education. The faculty seek to train students of all political persuasions not only in how to win campaigns, advance legislative goals, and impact public opinion, but also in how to do so ethically in a manner consistent with the common good.

GSPM is led by Mark Kennedy, former U.S. Congressman, presidential appointee (serving under Presidents Bush and Obama), and corporate senior executive (Macy's).


Discover GW's Graduate School of Political Management - GW's Graduate School of Political Management (GSPM), a division of the College of Professional Studies (CPS), is the leading academic institution devoted to ...

GSPM was founded in 1987 as an independent graduate school chartered by the New York State Board of Regents. Politics, done properly, requires training, and GSPM has developed an educational program in the art, science and business of politics, preparing graduates to advance and succeed in the field.

The school's first class convened on the Manhattan campus of Baruch College. In 1991, the school opened a degree program on the urban campus of the George Washington University, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood, just a few blocks from the White House, Capitol Hill, both major political parties and many of the top consulting, lobbying and public relations firms in the country.

The Columbian College of Arts and Sciences formally acquired GSPM in 1995, and in 2006, the school moved into the College of Professional Studies (CPS), where it is currently located. Designed for working professionals, classes meet in the evenings.

The school's Washington, D.C. connections mean students learn in the classroom but also in campaign offices, legislative suites, lobbying shops, PR agencies, and news bureaus.


The Global Center for Political Management

The Global Center for Political Management is focused not only on helping democracies to mature, but also on educating organizations about how to effectively engage in Washington, D.C., and in global capitals beyond, such as Brussels, Beijing and Brasilia. Open enrollment and custom professional education opportunities include

  • Campaign Seminars
  • International Advocacy Seminars
  • Latin American Political Management and Governance Program
  • Politics Boot Camps
  • Washington Road Map Seminars
  • Washington, D.C.-based Spanish Language Seminars
  • Women in Politics Leadership Seminars
  • Customized Campaign and Governance Training Seminars

The Center for Second Service

The Center for Second Service (charter pending) is a new GSPM initiative that trains veterans to continue their commitment to public service in the world of politics. The Center builds on the success of GW’s partnership with the non-profit Veterans Campaign, which has seen several of its alumni successfully campaign for elected office. Qualified veterans can receive full tuition reimbursement through a combination of GI Bill and Yellow Ribbon Program funding.


GSPM has more than 2,000 alumni all around the world, representing more than 40 nations and working in government, politics, public relations and public affairs.


  1. ^ "Discover the Graduate School of Political Management". Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  2. ^ "Mark Kennedy Biography". Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  3. ^ "Discover the Graduate School of Political Management". Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "Global Center for Political Engagement". Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  5. ^ "The Center for Second Service". Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "GSPM Alumni are Changing the World". Retrieved 1 May 2013. 

The Graduate School Of Political Management – Washington Graduate Schools


Agile software development is a group of software development methods in which solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing, cross-functional teams. It promotes adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and encourages rapid and flexible response to change.

The Manifesto for Agile Software Development, also known as the Agile Manifesto, was first proclaimed in 2001, six years after "Agile Methodology" was originally introduced by the preeminent software engineers of the late 80's and early 90's and came out of the DSDM Consortium in 1994 although its roots go back to the mid 80's at Dupont and works by James Martin and James Kerr et al.


Introduction to JIRA & Agile Project Management - I have lots more in store. Follow me on Twitter for more great stuff: Join me for a brief introduction to JIRA & Agile Project Management.

Incremental software development methods trace back to 1957. In 1974, E. A. Edmonds wrote a paper that introduced an adaptive software development process. Concurrently and independently, the same methods were developed and deployed by the New York Telephone Company's Systems Development Center under the direction of Dan Gielan. In the early 1970s, Tom Gilb started publishing the concepts of evolutionary project management (EVO), which has evolved into competitive engineering. During the mid- to late 1970s, Gielan lectured extensively throughout the U.S. on this methodology, its practices, and its benefits.

A collection of lightweight software development methods evolved in the mid-1990s in reaction to the perceived heavyweight waterfall-oriented methods, which critics called heavily regulated, regimented, and micro-managed; although some proponents of these lightweight methods contended that they were simply returning to earlier software practices. These lightweight methods included: from 1994, unified process and dynamic systems development method (DSDM); from 1995, scrum; from 1996, crystal clear and extreme programming (aka "XP"); and from 1997, adaptive software development and feature-driven development. Although these originated before the publication of the Agile Manifesto in 2001, they are now collectively referred to as agile methods; and often abbreviated loosely as Agile, with a capital A, although this is progressively becoming deprecated.

The Agile Manifesto

In February 2001, 17 software developers (see below) met at the Snowbird resort in Utah to discuss lightweight development methods. They published the Manifesto for Agile Software Development:

We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:

Individuals and interactions over Processes and tools

Working software over Comprehensive documentation

Customer collaboration over Contract negotiation

Responding to change over Following a plan

That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.

© 2001, the above authors. This declaration may be freely copied in any form, but only in its entirety through this notice.

The meanings of the manifesto items on the left are:

  • Individuals and interactions: self-organization and motivation are important, as are interactions like co-location and pair programming.
  • Working software: working software is more useful and welcome than just presenting documents to clients in meetings.
  • Customer collaboration: requirements cannot be fully collected at the beginning of the software development cycle, therefore continuous customer or stakeholder involvement is very important.
  • Responding to change: agile methods are focused on quick responses to change and continuous development.

Some of the authors formed the Agile Alliance, a non-profit organization that promotes software development according to the manifesto's values and principles. Introducing the manifesto on behalf of the Agile Alliance, Jim Highsmith said,

The Agile movement is not anti-methodology, in fact many of us want to restore credibility to the word methodology. We want to restore a balance. We embrace modeling, but not in order to file some diagram in a dusty corporate repository. We embrace documentation, but not hundreds of pages of never-maintained and rarely-used tomes. We plan, but recognize the limits of planning in a turbulent environment. Those who would brand proponents of XP or SCRUM or any of the other Agile Methodologies as "hackers" are ignorant of both the methodologies and the original definition of the term hacker.

Agile principles

The Agile Manifesto is based on 12 principles:

  1. Customer satisfaction by early and continuous delivery of useful software
  2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development
  3. Working software is delivered frequently (weeks rather than months)
  4. Close, daily cooperation between business people and developers
  5. Projects are built around motivated individuals, who should be trusted
  6. Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication (co-location)
  7. Working software is the principal measure of progress
  8. Sustainable development, able to maintain a constant pace
  9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design
  10. Simplicity—the art of maximizing the amount of work not done—is essential
  11. Self-organizing teams
  12. Regular adaptation to changing circumstance


Later, Ken Schwaber with others founded the Scrum Alliance and created the Certified Scrum Master programs and its derivatives. Schwaber left the Scrum Alliance in the fall of 2009, and founded

In 2005, a group headed by Alistair Cockburn and Jim Highsmith wrote an addendum of project management principles, the Declaration of Interdependence, to guide software project management according to agile software development methods.

In 2009, a movement spearheaded by Robert C Martin wrote an extension of software development principles, the Software Craftsmanship Manifesto, to guide agile software development according to professional conduct and mastery.

In 2011 the original Agile Alliance created the Guide to Agile Practices, an evolving open-source compendium of the working definitions of agile practices, terms, and elements, along with interpretations and experience guidelines from the world-wide community of agile practitioners.

The PRINCE2 project management methodology, used on many British Government projects, is being enhanced to manage projects that use Agile techniques.


There are many specific agile development methods. Most promote development, teamwork, collaboration, and process adaptability throughout the life-cycle of the project.

Iterative, incremental and evolutionary

Most agile development methods break the tasks into small increments with minimal planning and do not directly involve long-term planning. Iterations are short time frames (timeboxes) that typically last from one to four weeks. Each iteration involves a cross-functional team working in all functions: planning, requirements analysis, design, coding, unit testing, and acceptance testing. At the end of the iteration a working product is demonstrated to stakeholders. This minimizes overall risk and allows the project to adapt to changes quickly. An iteration might not add enough functionality to warrant a market release, but the goal is to have an available release (with minimal bugs) at the end of each iteration. Multiple iterations might be required to release a product or new features.

Working software is the primary measure of progress.

Efficient and face-to-face communication

No matter what development disciplines are required, each agile team should include a customer representative (product owner in scrum). This person is appointed by stakeholders to act on their behalf and makes a personal commitment to being available for developers to answer mid-iteration questions. At the end of each iteration, stakeholders and the customer representative review progress and re-evaluate priorities with a view to optimizing the return on investment (ROI) and ensuring alignment with customer needs and company goals.

In agile software development, an information radiator is a (normally large) physical display located prominently in an office, where passers-by can see it. It presents an up-to-date summary of the status of a software project or other product. The name was coined by Alistair Cockburn, and described in his 2002 book Agile Software Development. A build light indicator may be used to inform a team about the current status of their project.

Very short feedback loop and adaptation cycle

A common characteristic in agile is the daily "stand-up", also known as the daily scrum. In a brief session, team members report to each other what they did the previous day toward their team's sprint goal, what they intend to do today toward their team's sprint goal, and any roadblocks or impediments they can see to their team's sprint goal.

Quality focus

Specific tools and techniques, such as continuous integration, automated unit testing, pair programming, test-driven development, design patterns, domain-driven design, code refactoring and other techniques are often used to improve quality and enhance project agility.


Compared to traditional software engineering, agile software development mainly targets complex systems and projects with dynamic, undeterministic and non-linear characteristics, where accurate estimates, stable plans, and predictions are often hard to get in early stages—and big up-front designs and arrangements would probably cause a lot of waste, i.e., are not economically sound. These basic arguments and previous industry experiences, learned from years of successes and failures, have helped shape agile development's favor of adaptive, iterative and evolutionary development.

Adaptive vs. predictive

Development methods exist on a continuum from adaptive to predictive. Agile methods lie on the adaptive side of this continuum. One key of adaptive development methods is a "Rolling Wave" approach to schedule planning, which identifies milestones but leaves flexibility in the path to reach them, and also allows for the milestones themselves to change. Adaptive methods focus on adapting quickly to changing realities. When the needs of a project change, an adaptive team changes as well. An adaptive team has difficulty describing exactly what will happen in the future. The further away a date is, the more vague an adaptive method is about what will happen on that date. An adaptive team cannot report exactly what tasks they will do next week, but only which features they plan for next month. When asked about a release six months from now, an adaptive team might be able to report only the mission statement for the release, or a statement of expected value vs. cost.

Predictive method, in contrast, focus on analysing and planning the future in detail and cater for known risks. In the extremes, a predictive team can report exactly what features and tasks are planned for the entire length of the development process. Predictive methods rely on effective early phase analysis and if this goes very wrong, the project may have difficulty changing direction. Predictive teams often institute a change control board to ensure they consider only the most valuable changes.

Risk analysis can be used to choose between adaptive (agile or value-driven) and predictive (plan-driven) methods. Barry Boehm and Richard Turner suggest that each side of the continuum has its own home ground, as follows:

Iterative vs. waterfall

One of the differences between agile and waterfall is the approach to quality and testing. In the waterfall model, there is always a separate testing phase after a build phase; however, in agile development testing is usually done concurrently with, or at least in the same iteration as, programming.

Because testing is done in every iteration—which develops a small piece of the software—users can frequently use those new pieces of software and validate the value.

After the users know the real value of the updated piece of software, they can make better decisions about the software's future. Having a value retrospective and software re-planning session in each iteration—scrum typically has iterations of just two weeks—helps the team continuously adapt its plans so as to maximize the value it delivers.

This iterative practice also introduces a product mindset rather than the waterfall model's project mindset. Software can be seen as a living organism, which actively changes due to environmental change. As long as the software is being used, especially when it has competition, iterations in agile software development drive the change.

Because of the short iteration style of agile software development, it also has strong connections with the lean startup concept.

Code vs. documentation

In a letter to IEEE Computer, Steven Rakitin expressed cynicism about agile development, calling it "yet another attempt to undermine the discipline of software engineering" and translating "Working software over comprehensive documentation" as "We want to spend all our time coding. Remember, real programmers don't write documentation."

This is disputed by proponents of agile software development, who state that developers should write documentation if that's the best way to achieve the relevant goals, but that there are often better ways to achieve those goals than writing static documentation. Scott Ambler states that documentation should be "Just Barely Good Enough" (JBGE), that too much or comprehensive documentation would usually cause waste, and developers rarely trust detailed documentation because it's usually out of sync with code, while too little documentation may also cause problems for maintenance, communication, learning and knowledge sharing. Alistair Cockburn wrote of the Crystal Clear method:

Crystal considers development a series of co-operative games, and intends that the documentation is enough to help the next win at the next game. The work products for Crystal include use cases, risk list, iteration plan, core domain models, and design notes to inform on choices...however there are no templates for these documents and descriptions are necessarily vague, but the objective is clear, just enough documentation for the next game. I always tend to characterize this to my team as: what would you want to know if you joined the team tomorrow.

Agile methods

Popular agile software development methods and/or process frameworks include (but are not limited to):

  • Adaptive software development (ASD)
  • Agile modeling
  • Agile Unified Process (AUP)
  • Business analyst designer method (BADM)
  • Crystal Clear Methods
  • Disciplined agile delivery
  • Dynamic systems development method (DSDM)
  • Extreme programming (XP)
  • Feature-driven development (FDD)
  • Lean software development
  • Kanban (development)
  • Scrum
  • Scrumban

Agile methods are focused on different aspects of the software development life cycle. Some focus on the practices (e.g. XP, pragmatic programming, agile modeling), while others focus on managing the software projects (e.g. scrum). Yet, there are approaches providing full coverage over the development life cycle (e.g. DSDM, RUP), while most of them are suitable from the requirements specification phase on (FDD, for example). Thus, there is a clear difference between the various agile methods in this regard.

Agile practices

Agile development is supported by a bundle of concrete practices, covering areas like requirements, design, modelling, coding, testing, project management, process, quality, etc. Some notable agile practices include:

  • Acceptance test-driven development (ATDD)
  • Agile modeling
  • Backlogs (Product and Sprint)
  • Behavior-driven development (BDD)
  • Cross-functional team
  • Continuous integration (CI)
  • Domain-driven design (DDD)
  • Information radiators (scrum board, task board, visual management board, burndown chart)
  • Iterative and incremental development (IID)
  • Pair programming
  • Planning poker
  • Refactoring
  • Scrum events (sprint planning, daily scrum, sprint review and retrospective)
  • Test-driven development (TDD)
  • Agile testing
  • Timeboxing
  • Use case
  • User story
  • Story-driven modeling
  • Retrospective
  • Velocity tracking
  • User Story Mapping

The Agile Alliance has provided a comprehensive online collection with a map guide to the applying agile practices.

Method tailoring

In the literature, different terms refer to the notion of method adaptation, including 'method tailoring', 'method fragment adaptation' and 'situational method engineering'. Method tailoring is defined as:

A process or capability in which human agents determine a system development approach for a specific project situation through responsive changes in, and dynamic interplays between contexts, intentions, and method fragments.

Potentially, almost all agile methods are suitable for method tailoring. Even the DSDM method is being used for this purpose and has been successfully tailored in a CMM context. Situation-appropriateness can be considered as a distinguishing characteristic between agile methods and traditional software development methods, with the latter being relatively much more rigid and prescriptive. The practical implication is that agile methods allow project teams to adapt working practices according to the needs of individual projects. Practices are concrete activities and products that are part of a method framework. At a more extreme level, the philosophy behind the method, consisting of a number of principles, could be adapted (Aydin, 2004).

Extreme programming (XP) makes the need for method adaptation explicit. One of the fundamental ideas of XP is that no one process fits every project, but rather that practices should be tailored to the needs of individual projects. Partial adoption of XP practices, as suggested by Beck, has been reported on several occasions. Mehdi Mirakhorli proposes a tailoring practice that provides a sufficient road-map and guidelines for adapting all the practices. RDP Practice is designed for customizing XP. This practice, first proposed as a long research paper in the APSO workshop at the ICSE 2008 conference, is currently the only proposed and applicable method for customizing XP. Although it is specifically a solution for XP, this practice has the capability of extending to other methodologies. At first glance, this practice seems to be in the category of static method adaptation but experiences with RDP Practice says that it can be treated like dynamic method adaptation. The distinction between static method adaptation and dynamic method adaptation is subtle.

Comparison with other methods


Agile methods have much in common with the Rapid Application Development techniques from the 1980/90s as espoused by James Martin and others. In addition to technology-focused methods, customer-and-design-centered methods, such as Visualization-Driven Rapid Prototyping developed by Brian Willison, work to engage customers and end users to facilitate agile software development.

Further, James M. Kerr and Richard Hunter wrote a book on the subject that presented a day-by-day diary of an actual RAD project, It covered the project from inception to production and contains many of the techniques that forge the backbone of, and are very much present in, today's Agile approaches


In 2008 the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) published the technical report "CMMI or Agile: Why Not Embrace Both" to make clear that the Capability Maturity Model Integration and Agile can co-exist. Modern CMMI-compatible development processes are also iterative. The CMMI Version 1.3 includes tips for implementing CMMI and agile process improvement together.

Large-scale, offshore and distributed

Agile development has been widely seen as highly suited to certain types of environments, including small teams of experts working on greenfield projects, and the challenges and limitations encountered in the adoption of agile methods in a large organization with legacy infrastructure are well-documented and understood.

In response, a range of strategies and patterns has evolved for overcoming challenges with large-scale development efforts (>20 developers) or distributed (non-colocated) development teams, amongst other challenges; and there are now several recognised frameworks that seek to mitigate or avoid these challenges, including:

  • Scaled agile framework (SAFe), Dean Leffingwell inter alia
  • Disciplined agile delivery (DAD), Scott Ambler inter alia
  • Large-scale scrum (LeSS), Craig Larman and Bas Vodde
  • Nexus (scaled professional scrum), Ken Schwaber
  • Scrum at Scale Jeff Sutherland, Alex Brown
  • Enterprise scrum, Mike Beedle

There are many conflicting viewpoints on whether all of these are effective or indeed fit the definition of agile development, and this remains an active and ongoing area of research.

When agile software development is applied in a distributed setting (with teams dispersed across multiple business locations), it is commonly referred to as Distributed Agile Development. The goal is to leverage the unique benefits offered by each approach. Distributed development allow organizations to build software by strategically setting up teams in different parts of the globe, virtually building software round-the-clock (more commonly referred to as follow-the-sun model). On the other hand, agile development provides increased transparency, continuous feedback and more flexibility when responding to changes.

Regulated domains

Agile methods were initially seen as best suitable for non-critical software projects, thereby excluded from use in regulated domains such as medical devices, pharmaceutical, financial, nuclear systems, automotive, and avionics sectors, etc. However, in the last several years, there have been several initiatives for the adaptation of agile methods for these domains.

There are numerous standards that may apply in regulated domains, including ISO 26262, ISO 9000, ISO 9001, and ISO/IEC 15504. A number of key concerns are of particular importance in regulated domains which may conflict with the use of agile methods:

  • Quality Assurance (QA): Systematic and inherent quality management underpinning a controlled professional process and reliability and correctness of product.
  • Safety and Security: Formal planning and risk management to mitigate safety risks for users and securely protecting users from unintentional and malicious misuse.
  • Traceability: Documentation providing auditable evidence of regulatory compliance and facilitating traceability and investigation of problems.
  • Verification and Validation (V&V): Embedded throughout the software development process (e.g. user requirements specification, functional specification, design specification, code review, unit tests, integration tests, system tests).

The Scrum framework in particular has received considerable attention. Two derived methods have been defined: R-Scrum (Regulated Scrum) and SafeScrum.

Experience and adoption

Measuring agility

While agility can be seen as a means to an end, a number of approaches have been proposed to quantify agility. Agility Index Measurements (AIM) score projects against a number of agility factors to achieve a total. The similarly named Agility Measurement Index, scores developments against five dimensions of a software project (duration, risk, novelty, effort, and interaction). Other techniques are based on measurable goals. Another study using fuzzy mathematics has suggested that project velocity can be used as a metric of agility. There are agile self-assessments to determine whether a team is using agile practices (Nokia test, Karlskrona test, 42 points test).

While such approaches have been proposed to measure agility, the practical application of such metrics is still debated. There is agile software development ROI data available from the CSIAC ROI Dashboard.


One of the early studies reporting gains in quality, productivity, and business satisfaction by using Agile methods was a survey conducted by Shine Technologies from November 2002 to January 2003. A similar survey, the State of Agile, is conducted every year starting in 2006 with thousands of participants from around the software development community. The State of Agile survey tracks trends on the benefits of agile, trends, lessons learned, preferred practices and agile methodologies. From the 2013 results released in January 2014, the survey concludes that 73% of respondents say agile software helps them complete software projects faster; 92% say agile improves their ability to manage changing customer priorities; and 87% say agile improves their development team's productivity. In 2014 the survey "Status Quo Agile" showed better results of agile methods regarding all success criteria examined compared to classical project management Yet another survey conducted in 2006 by Scott Ambler, the Practice Leader for Agile Development with IBM Rational's Methods Group reported similar benefits. Others claim that agile development methods are still too young to require extensive academic proof of their success.

Common agile pitfalls

Organizations and teams implementing agile development often face difficulties transitioning from more traditional methods such as waterfall development, such as teams having an agile process forced on them. These are often termed agile anti-patterns or more commonly agile smells. Below are some common examples:

Lack of overall project design

This can lead to lack of scalability and design flaws—like building a house with no blueprint and hoping it remains standing.

Adding stories to a sprint in progress

Adding stories to a sprint in progress is detrimental to the flow established by Agile. From Ilan Goldstein's Sprint issues – when sprints turn into crawls, "'Isn't the ability to change course on the fly what Scrum is all about?' Well not quite. Scrum certainly provides provision to change product backlog priorities mid-project however this needs to occur between sprints and not during them."

If an issue arises that requires additions to a sprint, Ilan recommends an abnormal sprint termination. This does not mean that a user story cannot expand. Teams must deal with new information, which may produce additional tasks for a user story. If the new information prevents the user story from being production-ready during the sprint, then it should carry over to the next sprint. However, during the next sprint planning, the user story should be prioritized over all remaining user stories. The information that requires new tasks may have altered the user story priority.

Lack of sponsor support

Agile is often implemented as a grassroots effort in organizations by software development teams trying to optimize their development processes and ensure consistency in the software development life cycle. By not having sponsor support, teams may face difficulties and resistance from business partners, other development teams and management. "Carrying on without an effective sponsor raises the probability of project failure..."

Additionally, the project sponsor is responsible for ensuring the team has appropriate funding and resources.

Insufficient training

A survey performed by Version One found respondents cited insufficient training as the most significant cause for failed agile projects Teams have fallen into the trap of assuming the reduced processes of agile development compared to other methodologies such as waterfall means that there are no actual rules for agile development. Agile development is a set of prescribed methodologies, and training/practice is a requirement.

Product owner role is not properly filled

The product owner is responsible for representing the business in the development activity. In The Elements of Scrum the product owner "... is usually the most demanding role on a scrum team."

A common mistake is to have the product owner role filled by someone from the development team. According to Johanna Rothman this is a mistake, "When the business is unaccountable, the agile ecosystem breaks down." Having the development team fill this role results in the team making its own decisions on prioritization without real feedback from the business. Additionally, the team either tries to solve business issues internally or delay as they reach outside the core group for input. This can cause finger-pointing and divert from the collaborative process directed.

Teams are not focused

The agile process requires teams who focus on the project to meet project commitments. During a sprint, a resource who has the capacity is expected to take up tasks potentially outside their area of greatest expertise or comfort.

If team members have multiple projects, it is difficult to make spare capacity available to help complete the sprint. "While having information developers working on multiple scrum teams is not ideal, it can be done with some proper planning and judicious evaluation of which meetings you should attend."

Excessive preparation/planning

Teams may fall into the trap of spending too much time preparing or planning. This is a common trap for teams less familiar with the agile process where the teams feel obligated to have a complete understanding of all user stories or a detailed design. Teams should leverage the ability for Sprints to act as a method discovery and moving forward with the information they do know. As more information is gained it should be applied to the next Sprint.

Problem-solving in the daily standup

A daily standup should be a focused, timely meeting where all team members disseminate information. If problem-solving occurs, it often can only involve certain team members and potentially is not the best use of the entire team's time. If during the daily standup the team starts diving into problem-solving, it should be tabled until a sub-team can discuss, usually immediately after the daily scrum completes.

Assigning Tasks

One of the intended benefits of agile development is to empower the team to make choices, as they are closest to the problem. Additionally, they should make choices as close to implementation as possible—compared to a waterfall approach—to use more timely information in the decision. If team members are assigned tasks by others or too early in the process, the benefits of localized and timely decision making can be lost.

Another tendency is for assigners to box team members into certain roles (for example, team member A must always do the database work), which hinders cross-training. Team members themselves can choose to take on tasks that stretch their abilities and provide cross-training opportunities.

Scrum master as a contributor

Another common pitfall is for a scrum master to act as a contributor. While not prohibited by the Scrum methodology, the scrum master needs to ensure they have the capacity to act in the role of scrum master first and not working on tasks for the project. A scrum master's role is to facilitate the Scrum process. "Facilitating meetings such as a daily scrum, sprint planning, sprint reviews and sprint retrospectives is part of this. A technical contributor's role is to work with the other team members to figure out how to get the work done and to do it."

Having the scrum master also multitasking may result in too many context switches to be productive. Additionally, as a scrum master is responsible for ensuring roadblocks are removed so that the team can make forward progress, the benefit gained by individual tasks moving forward may not outweigh roadblocks that are deferred due to lack of capacity.

Lacking test automation

Due to the iterative nature of agile development, multiple rounds of testing for a project are often needed. "Having an automated testing framework, which takes care of both system and integration tests, adds a lot of firepower to such a team. It not only acts as a safety net against regressions caused by new development, but more importantly frees up a lot of precious developer and tester time - allowing them to focus on the things they do best."

Test automation also supports continued refactoring required by iterative software development. Allowing a developer to quickly run tests to confirm refactoring has not modified the functionality of the application may reduce the workload and increase confidence that cleanup efforts have not introduced new defects.

Allowing technical debt to build up

Focusing on delivering new functionality may result in increased technical debt. The team must allow themselves time for defect remediation and refactoring. Technical debt hinders planning abilities by increasing the amount of unscheduled work as production defects distract the team from further project progress.

As the system evolves it is important to refactor as entropy of the system naturally increases. Over time the lack of constant maintenance causes increasing defects and development costs.

Attempting to take on too much in a sprint

This is not applicable to Kanban, which does not have sprints.

A common misconception is that agile development allows continuous change, however a sprint backlog is an agreement of what work can be completed during the sprint. Additionally having too much work-in-progress(WIP) can result in inefficiencies due "to avoid the penalties of wasted time, effort and resources."

A possible issue is the team being pressured into taking on additional work. "An important point to reiterate here is that it's the team that selects how much work they can do in the coming sprint. The product owner does not get to say, 'We have four sprints left so you need to do one-fourth of everything I need.' We can hope the team does that much (or more), but it's up to the team to determine how much they can do in the sprint."

Fixed time, resources, scope, and quality

Agile development fixes time (sprint duration), quality, and ideally resources in advance (though maintaining fixed resources may be difficult if developers are often pulled away from tasks to handle production incidents), while the scope remains variable. The customer or product owner often pushes for a fixed scope for a sprint. However, teams should be reluctant to commit to locked time, resources and scope (commonly known as the project management triangle). Efforts to add scope to the fixed time and resources of agile development may result in decreased quality.


Agile methodologies can be very difficult for large organizations such as governments and multinational banks to faithfully adopt, for reasons ranging from lack of sponsor buy-in to agile, to refusal to heed agile consultants' advice on co-located teams - and particularly in the case of governments, outdated procurement and project management policies that assume non-agile methodologies.

Agile methodologies can be inefficient in large organizations and certain types of projects. Agile methods seem best for developmental and non-sequential projects. Many organizations believe that agile methodologies are too extreme and adopt a hybrid approach that mixes elements of agile and plan-driven approaches. However, DSDM is an agile methodology that in fact mixes elements of agile and plan-driven approaches in a disciplined way, without sacrificing the fundamental principles that make agile work.

The term "agile" has also been criticized as being a management fad that simply describes existing good practices under new jargon, promotes a "one size fits all" mindset towards development strategies, and wrongly emphasizes method over results.

Alistair Cockburn organized a celebration of the 10th anniversary of the Agile Manifesto in Snowbird, Utah on February 12, 2011, gathering some 30+ people who had been involved at the original meeting and since. A list of about 20 elephants in the room ("undiscussable" agile topics/issues) were collected, including aspects: the alliances, failures and limitations of agile practices and context (possible causes: commercial interests, decontextualization, no obvious way to make progress based on failure, limited objective evidence, cognitive biases and reasoning fallacies), politics and culture. As Philippe Kruchten wrote:

The agile movement is in some ways a bit like a teenager: very self-conscious, checking constantly its appearance in a mirror, accepting few criticisms, only interested in being with its peers, rejecting en bloc all wisdom from the past, just because it is from the past, adopting fads and new jargon, at times cocky and arrogant. But I have no doubts that it will mature further, become more open to the outside world, more reflective, and also therefore more effective.

Applications outside software development

Agile methods have been extensively used for development of software products and some of them use certain characteristics of software, such as object technologies. However, these techniques can be applied to the development of non-software products, such as computers, motor vehicles, medical devices, food, clothing, and music; see Flexible product development. Some of the wider principles of agile have also found application in general management (e.g., strategy, governance, risk, finance) under the terms business agility or Agile Business Management.

Under an Agile Business Management model, agile techniques, practices, principles and values are expressed across four domains.

  1. Integrated customer engagement - to embed customers within any delivery process to share accountability for product/service delivery.
  2. Facilitation-based management - adopting agile management models, like the role of Scrum Master, to facilitate the day-to-day operation of teams.
  3. Agile work practices - adopting specific iterative and incremental work practices such as Scrum, Kanban, Test-Driven Development or Feature-Driven Development across all business functions (from Sales, Human Resources, Finance and Marketing).
  4. An enabling organisational structure - with a focus on staff engagement, personal autonomy and outcomes based governance.

Agile development paradigms can be used in other areas of life such as raising children. Its success in child development might be founded on some basic management principles; communication, adaptation and awareness. Bruce Feiler has claimed that the basic Agile Development paradigms can be applied to household management and raising children. In his TED Talk, "Agile programming -- for your family", these paradigms brought significant changes to his household environment, such as the kids doing dishes, taking out the trash, and decreasing his children's emotional outbreaks, which inadvertently increased their emotional stability. In some ways, agile development is more than a bunch of software development rules: it can be something more simple and broad, like a problem solving guide.


Further reading

  • Abrahamsson, P., Salo, O., Ronkainen, J., & Warsta, J. (2002). Agile Software Development Methods: Review and Analysis. VTT Publications 478.
  • Cohen, D., Lindvall, M., & Costa, P. (2004). An introduction to agile methods. In Advances in Computers (pp. 1–66). New York: Elsevier Science.
  • Dingsøyr, Torgeir, Dybå, Tore and Moe, Nils Brede (ed.): Agile Software Development: Current Research and Future Directions, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2010.
  • Moran, Alan. Managing Agile: Strategy, Implementation, Organisation and People. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2015. (ISBN 978-3-319-16262-1)
  • Fowler, Martin. Is Design Dead?. Appeared in Extreme Programming Explained, G. Succi and M. Marchesi, ed., Addison-Wesley, Boston. 2001.
  • Larman, Craig and Basili, Victor R. Iterative and Incremental Development: A Brief History IEEE Computer, June 2003
  • Riehle, Dirk. A Comparison of the Value Systems of Adaptive Software Development and Extreme Programming: How Methodologies May Learn From Each Other. Appeared in Extreme Programming Explained, G. Succi and M. Marchesi, ed., Addison-Wesley, Boston. 2001.
  • M. Stephens, D. Rosenberg. Extreme Programming Refactored: The Case Against XP. Apress L.P., Berkeley, California. 2003. (ISBN 1-59059-096-1)
  • Shore, J., & Warden S. (2008). The Art of Agile Development. O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  • Willison, Brian (2008). Iterative Milestone Engineering Model. New York, NY.
  • Willison, Brian (2008). Visualization Driven Rapid Prototyping. Parsons Institute for Information Mapping.

External links

  • Agile at DMOZ
  • Two Ways to Build a Pyramid, John Mayo-Smith (VP Of Technology At R/GA), October 22, 2001
  • The New Methodology Martin Fowler's description of the background to agile methods
  • Ten Authors of The Agile Manifesto Celebrate its Tenth Anniversary
  • Agile Manifesto
  • Agile Rapid Website Development

Agile Software Development – Agile Project Management Software Comparison


The Anderson School of Management (Anderson) is the business school of the University of New Mexico (UNM). Anderson was the first professional school of management established in the state of New Mexico.


UNM’s Anderson School of Management allows students to earn a BA and MBA in just 5 years - Anderson School of Management student Noah Kessler St. De Croix talks about how his passion for art, business and sustainability has helped him to complete ...

The school was founded as the College of Business Administration in 1947 under Dean Robert Rehder. It has been accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) since 1975. UNM was the third university to gain professional AACSB accreditation for both their bachelor's and master's degree programs management programs. In 1974, the school was named for Robert Orville Anderson, a New Mexico oilman and longtime CEO of the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO). The school was the first at a state college or university in New Mexico to be named in honor of a prominent citizen.

The school has grown from 15 tenured or tenure-track faculty members when it was established to 50 tenured or tenure-track faculty members today. The current dean is Craig G. White.



The Anderson School offers undergraduate Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) degrees and four master's degree programs: The Master of Business Administration (MBA), the Executive MBA (EMBA), The Master of Science in Information Systems and Assurance (MS-ISA), and the Master of Accounting (MACCT). BBA and MBA students may select from ten concentrations: Accounting, entrepreneurship, financial management, information assurance, international management and international management in Latin America, information systems management, management of technology, marketing management, operations management, organizational behavior/human resource management, and policy and planning. Students may also choose not to pursue a concentration.

BBA students may select from ten concentrations: Accounting, finance, human resource management, interdisciplinary film and digital media (IFDM), international management and international management in Latin America, information systems management, marketing management, operations management, entrepreneurial studies, or organizational leadership.

The Anderson School offers several dual-degree programs for students who wish to pursue a second advanced degree in conjunction with the MBA. MBA dual degree programs are offered with the Juris Doctor (JD) with the School of Law (MBA/JD), the Master of Engineering programs in manufacturing engineering and electrical or computer engineering (MBA/MEME and MBA/ME) with the School of Engineering; the MBA/Pharm.D. (MBA/Doctor of Pharmacy); and the Master of Arts in Latin American Studies (MBA/MA) with the UNM Latin American Studies Program. The School also offers a dual-degree program with the School of Law with the Master of Accounting (JD/MACCT).

Anderson’s MBA program in Management of Technology was ranked in the top 10 in the U.S. in a 2004 study published in the Journal of Product Innovation Management.

The Anderson School offers several scholarships to its students. In the 2012-2013 academic year, 131 undergraduate students applied for scholarships; 53 students received awards totaling $51,500. 155 MBA/MACCT students applied for scholarships; 97 students received awards totaling $191,030.

In April 2008, the Federal Bureau of Investigation announced that was awarding the nation's 15th Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory (RCFL) to New Mexico, with the University of New Mexico as one of several partnering institutions and agencies. The New Mexico RCFL is a computer forensics laboratory and training center supporting local, state, and federal criminal investigations. The Anderson School's Center for Information Assurance Research and Education, established in 2006, is involved with the laboratory. The CIARE was designated a Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance by the National Security Agency and Department of Homeland Security in spring 2007.

The Anderson School is part of the UNM Interdisciplinary Film and Digital Media Program, along with the College of Fine Arts and other UNM programs.

The Anderson School's Endowed Chair in Economic Development, currently held by Dr. Suleiman Kassicieh, oversees a wide range of economic development initiatives within the school, including the UNM Business Plan Competition, with over $100,000 in annual prizes and additional venture capital funding for student teams who compose the strongest technology and entreprenuerial business plans.

The UNM Small Business Institute (SBI) at Anderson, established in 1978, connects with Albuquerque-area businesses with graduate and undergraduate students who provide free consulting work under the guidance of the faculty. The institute works with around 25 businesses a semester.

Anderson MBA marketing have won the Cadillac National Case Study Competition in 2005 and 2006, and placed second in 2007.

Senior-level BBA marketing students won Project Acceleration: The Subaru Impreza Collegiate Challenge in 2007.


In April 2009, the Bridgespan Group ranked the Anderson School tied for third in the nation in the number of courses specifically related to managing social sector organizations. In 2007, the Aspen Institute Center for Business Education rated the Anderson School 18th in the world among business schools for demonstrating significant leadership in integrating social and environmental issues into its MBA program. In the same year, Hispanic Business magazine included Anderson School one its list of "top ten U.S. business schools for Hispanics" based on its total graduate and Hispanic enrollment, faculty, student services, retention rate and reputation. In March 2011 Anderson was, according to US News, one of the top 10 business schools with the highest three month job placement rates among full-time 2010 M.B.A. graduates. US News


According to data reported in 2011 by U.S. News & World Report, 50.7 percent of Anderson MBA students are minorities, the 17th highest proportion of minority MBA student enrollment in the United States. Other data reported on2011 indicates that 53.6 percent of Anderson MBA students are women.

Student life


Several student organizations are active at Anderson, including the Alpha Kappa Psi Professional Business Fraternity (Beta Tau Chapter) Fraternity, the American Indian Business Association (AIBA), DECA, the Association of Graduate Business Students (AGBS), the Association of Latino Professionals in Finance and Accounting (ALPFA), the Beta Alpha Psi Honors Fraternity for Financial Information Professionals, Delta Sigma Pi (Gamma Iota Chapter), the Finance Management Association (FMA), the Graduate and Professional Association (GPSA), the Hispanic Business Student Association (HBSA), the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA), Net Impact, the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), and the Student Contracts Management Association.


Anderson's "Distinguished CEO Lecture Series" has featured lectures from CEOs, including New Mexico native and Anderson alumnus Michael S. Gallegos Gallegos also sponsors the $25,000 first-place prize for the UNM Technology Business Plan Competition, an Anderson initiative which seeks to foster high-tech startup firms and high-wage job creation in the state.

Anderson hosted the first Albuquerque Hispano Chamber of Commerce Day in the spring 2008, where prominent Hispanic business leaders spoke.


Anderson alumni include James G. Ellis (BBA, 1968), dean of the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business, and Gene E. Franchini (BBA, 1957), lawyer, judge, New Mexico Supreme Court Chief Justice.


External links

  • Official website

Anderson School Of Management (University Of New Mexico) – University ...


The Curtis L. Carlson School of Management is a business school at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. The Carlson School offers undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees, as well as an executive education program. The Carlson School also offers dual degrees with the colleges and schools of public affairs, law, medicine, and public health.


Minnesota Executive Program-Carlson School of Management - Advanced business strategy and leadership for executives The Minnesota Executive Program (MEP) is a powerful advanced business strategy and leadership ...

The Carlson School of Management was founded in 1919 in response to requests from business people in the Twin Cities to establish a business school at the University of Minnesota. From the beginning, members of the business community worked in partnership with the school’s faculty and students by providing classroom speakers, internships, employment opportunities, and scholarships . In that first year, 14 faculty members instructed 88 students. Since then, the school has undergone five name changes and has been housed in five locations. Today, the Carlson School has nearly 5,000 students, 50,000 alumni, six degree programs, 106 tenure-track and 28 full-time instructional faculty members.

Institutional milestones

  • 1919 – Founded as the University of Minnesota School of Business
  • 1920 – Became a member of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)
  • 1929 – First “Tomato Can Loving Cup Award” was given to recognize an outstanding graduating senior who performed the most distinctive service to the Carlson School. The award, which is still given today, long came with a scholarship to the Carlson School’s MBA program after the recipient has gained two years of work experience.
  • 1937 – First Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree conferred
  • 1948 – Ph.D. business program founded
  • 1960 – Part-time MBA program founded
  • 1963 – Received accreditation from AACSB and became one of the first 20 business schools in the nation to receive this distinction.
  • 1981 – Executive MBA program founded
  • 1986 – Curtis L. Carlson, Minnesota entrepreneur and founder of the Carlson Companies, gave the University of Minnesota a $25 million gift, which at the time was the largest single gift ever given to a public university. In his honor, the School of Management was renamed the Curtis L. Carlson School of Management.
  • 1988 – First study abroad program was launched in Lyon, France. Now all Carlson School undergraduates are required to have an international experience.
  • 1993 – Curtis Carlson gives another personal gift of $10 million to the Carlson School to drive the building of a freestanding business school.
  • 1998 – The Curtis L. Carlson School of Management building is dedicated.
  • 2004 – Herbert M. Hanson, Jr., and his wife Barbara, pledged $10 million toward the construction of a new undergraduate facility.
  • 2006 –Dean Alison Davis-Blake is named the first female dean of the Carlson School.
  • 2008 – The Carlson School’s new undergraduate facility, Herbert M. Hanson, Jr., Hall, opens and welcomes a freshman undergraduate class of nearly 500 students.
  • 2013 - MSBA - Master of Science in Business Analytics program founded


The Carlson School of Management’s two facilities, the Curtis L. Carlson School of Management and Herbert M. Hanson, Jr. Hall are located on the University of Minnesota’s West Bank, west of the Mississippi River.

Curtis L. Carlson School of Management

The Carlson School is housed in a 243,000-square-foot (22,600 m2), five-story building that was dedicated in 1998. The building encompasses 33 classrooms, 35 meeting rooms, a 180-seat lecture hall, and a 250-seat auditorium. The facility is equipped with wireless internet access, experiential learning laboratories, teleconferencing and video interview capabilities. It is also home to a dining center located in the basement level of the building. The facility is currently undergoing renovations.

Herbert M. Hanson, Jr. Hall

Opened on September 25, 2008, Hanson Hall is connected to the Carlson School by the Robert Sparboe skyway. As part of a $40 million expansion project, Herbert M. Hanson, Jr. Hall nearly doubled the size of the business school, and provided a state-of-the-art home for the Carlson School Undergraduate program. Hanson Hall covers 124,000 square feet (11,500 m2), is four-stories tall, and is outfitted with nine classrooms with wireless Internet access and state-of-the-art presentation technology. The facility also features 22 interview rooms, 10 breakout rooms, a collaborative learning lab, a recruiter lounge, a meeting room for information sessions and presentations by the corporate community, offices for undergraduate advising, undergraduate career placement, offices for the Department of Economics in the College of Liberal Arts, and a Starbucks. The building is named after the generous benefactors, Herb ’49 B.A. and Bar Hanson, who kicked off the building campaign with a $10 million pledge in 2004. In spring 2006, the Minnesota State Legislature granted $26.6 million in funding to the Carlson School as part of the University of Minnesota’s Capital Campaign request.


The school offers a bachelor's, MBA, and doctoral degrees, as well as executive education programs hosted domestically and abroad (Warsaw, China, Vienna). Dual-degree programs include a JD/MBA, MD/MBA, MHA/MBA, and a MPP/MBA. Other programs include a Master of Arts in Human Resources and Industrial Relations (MA-HRIR), a Master of Business Taxation (MBT), and a Master of Accountancy (MAcc).

In 1920, the University of Minnesota became the 18th school to be accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB).


  • Curtis L. Carlson (’37 BA) – Chairman, Carlson Companies, Inc., namesake of the Curtis L. Carlson School of Management
  • John G. Stumpf (MBA) - CEO, Wells Fargo
  • Thomas O. Staggs (BSB) - CEO, The Walt Disney Company
  • John G. Mulligan (MBA) - CFO, Target
  • Duane L. Burnham (MBA) - Former Chairman, Abbot Laboratories
  • William Grant Van Dyke (MBA) - Former Chairman, Donaldson Co
  • C. Elmer Anderson (’31 BBA, ’83 PhD) – Minnesota Governor, Minnesota State Senator; Chair & CEO, HB Fuller Co.
  • Alan K. Ruvelson (’36 BBA) – Founder of America’s first venture capital firm; President, First Midwest Capital Corporation
  • Richard Cyert (’43 BSB) – President, Carnegie Mellon University
  • William S. Cook (’48 BBA) – Chairman & CEO, Union Pacific
  • Robert T. Sprouse (’52 MBA) – Co-Founder, Financial Accounting Standards Board
  • Duane R. Kullberg (’54 BBA) – Managing Partner & CEO, Arthur Andersen
  • Robert K. Jaedicke (’57 PhD) – Dean & Professor Emeritus, Stanford Graduate School of Business
  • Marcus Alexis (’59 PhD) – Dean, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Business Administration
  • Duane Burnham (’63 BSB, ’72 MBA) – Chairman, CEO, & President, Abbott Laboratories
  • Tony Dungy (’78 BSB) – Former Head Coach, Indianapolis Colts, National Football League
  • John Hammergren (’81 BSB) – Chairman & CEO, McKesson Corporation
  • Patrick Durkee ('01 MBA) - Founder, CEO, Platinum Series Baseball
  • Flip Saunders (’83 BSB) – Co-owner, President of Basketball Operations & General Manager, Minnesota Timberwolves, National Basketball Association; Former Head Coach, Minnesota Timberwolves, National Basketball Association

See also

  • List of United States business school rankings
  • List of business schools in the United States


External links

  • Carlson School of Management

Carlson School Of Management – Carlson Executive Education


The UC Davis Graduate School of Management (GSM) is a graduate business school at the University of California, Davis.

Established in 1981, the school has a number of programs. It offers three Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs: The two-year daytime program at Davis and two working professional programs, one in Sacramento and the other at San Ramon in the San Francisco Bay Area. The GSM's daytime program is ranked 48th in the nation by U.S. News and World Report.

The school offers an undergraduate minor in technology management, business development programs, and executive programs. The school's teaching model combines case study, experiential learning, lecture and team projects. In addition, starting in the fall 2012, the school will offer a one-year MPAc (Master of Professional Accountancy) program, in response to the growing demand for accountants and the changes made to California law regarding the CPA exam.

The school's LEED Platinum certified facility, Maurice J. Gallagher, Jr. Hall, opened in September 2009.

MBA programs

Conflict Minerals: UC Davis Graduate School of Management Professor Paul Griffin and MBA students - Supply Chain Sustainability: UC Davis Graduate School of Management Professor Paul Griffin moderates a discussions with UC Davis MBA students who ...

The MBA degree requires completing 72 hours of credit (24 courses) with a cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or better. MBA student at UC Davis may also seek to earn a joint degree such as J.D./M.B.A., MBA/Doctor of Medicine (MD), MBA/Master of Science in Engineering (MSE), MBA/Master of Science (MS) in Agricultural and Resource Economics.

MBA concentrations offered are: Accounting; Competitive Analytics and Technologies; Finance; Information Technology; General Management; Marketing; Technology Management; and Entrepreneurship. MBA specializations offered are: Agribusiness; Biotechnology; Corporate and Social Responsibility; Healthcare; High Tech; International Business; Non-Profit; Real Estate; Small Business; and Wine Industry.

The new curriculum is anchored by IMPACT, a new, two-part capstone course, developed to sharpen writing, speaking and critical-thinking abilities that will be put to work on 20-week team projects for client companies ranging from multinational Fortune 500 firms to ultra-fast-paced Silicon Valley start-ups.

Team projects will be organized around industry sectors directly connected to UC Davis' research strengths: Clean technology and Energy, Biotechnology, Information Technology, Healthcare Delivery, Telemedicine, Foods, Nutrition and Agribusiness Service sectors (e.g. finance and consulting) and OneHealth (intersection of human and animal medicine). In tandem with the new curriculum, UC Davis MBA program has also introduced an enhanced, two-year leadership and career development training program that emphasizes self-evaluation to improve leadership skills.

Master of Professional Accountancy

Starting in the fall 2012, the school will become the first University of California school to offer a master’s degree in professional accountancy—a response to major changes in educational requirements and the resulting need for improved training of certified public accountants in California.

The MPAc program would require students to pass an examination after advancing to candidacy, and at the end of all coursework, in order to receive the degree.

Research centers

  • Center for Entrepreneurship - Under the direction of Professor Andrew Hargadon, the Center for Entrepreneurship provides researchers and MBA students with the necessary skills, resources and network support to turn their ideas into action for profit or for social benefit. The center brings science, engineering and business students and faculty together with entrepreneurs, investors and corporate leaders in a collaborative environment
  • Center for Investor Welfare and Corporate Responsibility - Under the direction of Professor Brad M. Barber, the Center for Investor Welfare and Corporate Responsibility draws on the expertise of Graduate School of Management faculty engaged in research related to investor welfare, corporate fraud, white-collar crime, corporate ethics and social responsibility. The Center advocates for improved corporate practices, educates investors through research and outreach, and better prepare MBA students for today's global business arena.
  • MBA Consulting Center - Under the direction of Professor Richard C. Dorf, the MBA Consulting Center offers field study experiences to MBA students who have completed the core courses. Students apply the business knowledge acquired in other courses to real-world situations.

Student life

  • Associated Students of Management (ASM) provides the framework for incorporating student ideas into the MBA program, networking with alumni, engaging in philanthropic activities, and coordinating extracurricular and social events. Its mission is to "enhance the value of students' experience by creating a collaborative community that facilitates academic, social and professional growth while building a reputation for innovation and excellence".
  • Collaborating closely with the Career Services Center, the School's professional student groups raise awareness of career opportunities and offer services in specific fields, from marketing and finance to technology and consulting.
  • Big Bang! is the annual UC Davis Business Plan Competition organized by MBA students. The competition promotes new business development, technology transfer and entrepreneurship on campus and in Northern California. Over 20 thousand dollars are awarded to the winners of the competition each year.
  • Challenge for Charity (C4C) supports the Special Olympics and family-related local charities.
  • Net Impact offers programs to help its members broaden their business education, refine leadership skills, pursue professional goals and build their network.
  • Various intramural sports teams that compete against other teams on campus in recreational sports such as flag football, soccer, basketball, and inner tube water polo.


U.S. News & World Report

  • 2016: Full-Time MBA program ranked #48 nationally; Part-Time MBA program ranked #29 nationally
  • 2015: Full-Time MBA program ranked #41 nationally, Part-Time MBA program ranked #25 nationally

Financial Times

  • 2014: Full-Time MBA Program ranked #98 globally
  • 2013: Full-Time MBA Program ranked #95 globally

The Economist

  • 2014: Full-Time MBA program ranked #40 nationally and #68 globally
  • 2013: Full-Time MBA program ranked #38 nationally and #65 globally


  • 2014: Full-Time MBA program ranked #60 nationally

Forbes Magazine

  • 2011: Full-Time MBA program ranked #72 nationally

See also

  • List of United States business school rankings
  • List of business schools in the United States


External links

  • Official website

UC Davis Graduate School Of Management – Uc Mba Program

online-application-responsive.jpg is a patented online lease management software system that minimizes or replaces traditional paper-based functions while ensuring compliance with laws pertaining to fair housing, resident screening, credit reporting and lease contract forms.

Company History - Work Orders for Property Management Tasks - is a web-based property management software which offers a FREE 60-day trial. Click here to get started: ...

1999: Tom Harrington, apartment community owner & entrepreneur, realized there was little to no available technology and limited visibility over what was happening at his communities. Jake Harrington, “Internet Generation”, brought an engineer’s approach in order to achieve simplification via technology.

2000: Summer 2000, Jake and two classmates from Duke University begin software development from an apartment in Los Altos, CA. Develop auto-form filling technology and call the new company Forms Dash. In July, Forms Dash prints first lease for the Greenery Apartments in Campbell, CA.

Scott Jones, Stanford M.A. in Computer Science pioneered technology as the site’s architect. Forms Dash becomes On-Site Manager Inc, after the job position it automates. December 2000, Via Reggio Apartments San Jose, CA becomes first paying customer.

2001: On-Site Manager Inc subscribes to the credit bureau Equifax, adding credit screening to its auto-form filling technology. The auto-form filling and credit screening services get a new name – Rental Express.

2002: Eviction & criminal searches and verification of employment, rental & banking history are added to the Rental Express service. Customizable lease documents are introduced, which creates one of the most comprehensive resident screening services in the industry.

2003: Regional offices are opened in Seattle, San Diego, and New York City.

2005-06: Opens new regional office in Los Angeles. On-Site Manager Inc. becomes RentNow, a resident screening service designed to meet needs of private landlords, goes live on leading to a record 1000 applicant processed in a single day in May 2006 (doubling in less than a year). Nov 2006, On-Site is featured in The New York Times article

2007: Regional offices added in Phoenix, Chicago, and Atlantic City. On-Site acquires Need 2 Know Reporting and RentQuest. RentQuest becomes the Washington satellite office. On-Site partners with RentBureau to add rental payment data to resident screening reports.

2008: The Main office relocates to Mountain View, CA. On-Site acquires apartment listing site Rent Spider. Rent Spider becomes On-Site marketing suite, which helps apartment managers promote their communities and drive traffic. May 2008, On-Site is awarded patent 7.376,619 (insert pic) for its screening and forms automation technology. The patent took 7 years to be approved.

2009: E-Sign (e-signature) is introduced, ultimately allowing real signatures to be captured and imprinted on lease documents. Regional office opened in Denver and Atlanta. Offices are relocated to Campbell, CA in what was once the Sunsweet processing plant.

Business model positions itself as a web application that assists both resident applicants and multi-family residential communities to efficiently move through the stages of leasing a rental property online.

In a typical example of the online process flow, a resident fills out an online application to rent; the data on the form is immediately submitted to return a credit report; the report and a recommendation to rent based on income requirements is submitted back to the leasing agent; if the decision is made to rent, a lease contract is dynamically generated from the resident and property data, and the resident and the agent close the contract using electronic signatures. The complete process can take place online from diverse remote locations.

In contrast to traditional in-office leasing procedures, the system is designed to eliminate subjective discriminatory practices while automatically enforcing legal compliance with credit and housing laws and reducing or removing the industry's historical reliance on paper-based documents.

Primary Customers

  • EdR
  • Greystar (formerly Riverstone)
  • FPI Management
  • Holland Partner Group
  • Capstone
  • Two Trees Management LLC
  • Viking Properties
  • Hudson Real Estate
  • Evergreen Apt Group
  • Allied Residential
  • HNN


  • Need2Know Reporting
  • RentQuest (2007)
  • Rent Bureau
  • Rent Spider

Industry recognition and awards

In August 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2013 the Multi-Housing News Technology Choice Awards voted Top Resident Screening System. was also selected as a finalist for its First Annual Green Initiative Award. On-Site and EdR took top honors at the recent Student Housing Business Inovator Awards for "Best Off-Campus Venor/Operator Solution".

See also

  • Credit score (United States)
  • Digital signature
  • Electronic signature
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act

References – Onsite Property Management Software